The result of collaboration between numerous leading scholars, CMR 7, along with the other volumes in this series, is intended as a basic tool for research in Christian-Muslim relations. Section editors: Clinton Bennett, Luis F. Volume 6 Western Europe A Bibliographical History, volume 6 CMR 6 , covering the years , is a continuing volume in a history of relations between followers of the two faiths as it is recorded in their written works. Together with introductory essays, it comprises detailed entries on all the works known from this century.
This volume traces the attitudes of Western Europeans to Islam, particularly in light of continuing Ottoman expansion, and early despatches sent from Portuguese colonies around the Indian Ocean. The result of collaboration between numerous leading scholars, CMR 6, along with the other volumes in this series, is intended as a fundamental tool for research in Christian-Muslim relations. Terms and Conditions Privacy Statement.
Powered by: PubFactory. Sign in to annotate. Delete Cancel Save. Cancel Save. Why term they that a favour, which is an injury? Wherefore cloak they impiety with the name of charitable indulgence? Such facility giveth not, but rather taketh away peace; and is itself another fresh persecution or trial, whereby that fraudulent enemy maketh a secret havock of such as before he had overthrown; and now to the end he may clean swallow them, he casteth sorrow in a dead sleep, putteth grief to silence, wipeth out the memory of faults newly done, smothereth the sighs that should arise 1 from a contrite spirit, drieth up eyes which ought to send forth rivers of tears, and permitteth not God to be pacified with full repentance, whom heinous and enormous crimes have displeased.
By this then we see, that in St. Edition: ; Page: [ 9 ] m By what works in the Virtue, and by what in the Discipline of Repentance, we are said to satisfy either God or men, cannot now be thought obscure. The end of satisfaction. As for the inventors of sacramental satisfaction, they have both altered the natural order heretofore kept in the Church, by bringing in a strange preposterous course, to absolve before satisfaction be made, and moreover by this their misordered practice are grown into sundry errors concerning the end whereunto it is referred.
Yet so that there is between God and man a certain composition as it were or contract, by virtue whereof works assigned by the priest to be done after absolution shall satisfy God, as touching the punishment which he otherwise would inflict for sin pardoned and forgiven n. The way of satisfying by others. Now because they cannot assure any man, that if he perform what the priest appointeth it shall suffice; this I say because they cannot do, inasmuch as the priest hath no power to determine or define of equivalency between sins and satisfactions; and yet if a penitent depart this life, the debt of satisfaction being either in whole or in part undischarged, they steadfastly hold that the soul must remain in unspeakable torment till all be paid: therefore for help and mitigation in this case, they advise men to set certain copesmates on work, whose prayers and sacrifices may satisfy God for such souls Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] as depart in debt.
Hence have arisen the infinite pensions of their priests, the building of so many altars and tombs, the enriching of Churches with so many glorious and costly gifts, the bequeathing of lands and ample possessions to religious companies, even with utter forgetfulness of friends, parents, wife, children o , all natural affection giving place unto that desire, which men doubtful of their own estate have to deliver their souls from torment after death. Yet behold, even this being also done, how far forth it shall avail they are not sure; and therefore the last upshot unto all their former inventions is, that as every action of Christ did both merit for himself, and satisfy partly for the eternal, and partly for the temporal punishment due unto men for sin; so his saints have obtained the like privilege of grace, making every good work they do, not only meritorious in their own behalf, but satisfactory too for the benefit of others.
So many works of satisfaction pretended to be done by Christ, by saints, and martyrs; so many virtuous acts possessed with satisfactory force and virtue; so many Edition: current; Page: [ 73 ] supererogations in satisfying beyond the exigence of their own necessity; BOOK VI.
Such facility they have to convert a pretended sacrament into a true x revenue. Of Absolution of Penitents. It resteth therefore to be considered what warrant we have concerning forgiveness, when the sentence of man absolveth us from sin committed against God. Now there is no controversy but as God in that special case did authorize Nathan, so Christ more generally his Apostles and the ministers of his word in his name to absolve sinners.
Edition: ; Page: [ 2 ] a It is not to be marvelled that so great a difference appeareth between the doctrine of Rome and ours, when we teach repentance. They imply in the name of repentance much more than we do. We stand chiefly upon the true b inward conversion of the heart; they more upon works of external show. We labour to instruct men in such sort, that every soul which is wounded with sin may learn the way how to cure itself; they, clean contrary, would make all sores seem incurable, unless the priest have a hand in them. So that no contrition or grief of heart, till the priest exact it; no acknowledgment of sins, but that which he doth demand; no praying, no fasting, no alms, no recompense or restitution for whatsoever we have done, can help, except by him it be first imposed.
It is the chain of their own doctrine, no remedy for mortal sin committed after baptism but the sacrament of penance only; no sacrament of penance, if either matter or form be wanting; no ways to make those duties a material part of the sacrament, unless we consider them as required and exacted by the priest.
Our Lord and Saviour, they say, hath ordained his priests judges in such sort, that no man which sinneth after baptism can be reconciled unto God but by their sentence 2. For why? Howbeit all this with two restraints, which every jurisdiction in the world hath; the one, that the practice thereof proceed in due order; the other, that it do not extend itself beyond due bounds; which bounds or limits have so confined penitential jurisdiction, that although there be given unto it power of remitting sin, yet not such sovereignty of power, that no sin should be pardonable in man without it.
Edition: ; Page: [ 4 ] h What is then the force of absolution? What is it which the act of absolution worketh in a sinful man? Doth it by any operation derived from itself alter the state of the soul? The latter of wich two is our assertion, the former theirs. Now albeit we willingly confess with St. Edition: ; Page: [ 5 ] k To remission of sins there are two things necessary; grace, as the only cause which taketh away iniquity; and repentance, as a duty or condition required in us.
To make repentance such as it should be, what doth God demand but inward sincerity joined with fit and convenient offices for that purpose? It pleaseth God that men sometimes should, by missing this help, perceive how much they stand bound to him for so precious a benefit enjoyed.
And surely, so long as the world lived in any awe or fear of falling away from God, so dear were his ministers to the people, chiefly in this respect, that being through tyranny and persecution deprived of pastors, the doleful rehearsal 1 of Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] their lost felicities hath not any one thing more eminent, than that sinners distrest should not now know how or where to unlade their burthen. Strange it were unto me, that the Fathers, who so much every where extol the grace of Jesus Christ in leaving unto his Church this heavenly and divine power, should as men whose simplicity had generally m been abused, agree all to admire and magnify a needless office.
For inasmuch as the power which our Saviour gave to his Church is of two kinds, the one to be exercised over voluntary penitents only, the other over such as are to be brought to amendment by ecclesiastical censure q ; the words wherein he hath given this authority must be so understood, as the subject or matter whereupon it worketh will permit. It doth not permit that in the former kind, that is to say, in the use of power over voluntary converts, to bind or loose, remit or retain, should signify any other than only to pronounce of sinners according to that which may be gathered by outward signs; because really to effect the removal or continuance of sin in the soul of any offender r , is no priestly act, but a work which far exceedeth their ability s.
And this power, true it is, that the Church of Christ hath invested in it. Edition: ; Page: [ 6 ] u Howbeit, as other truths, so this hath both by error been oppugned, and depraved through abuse. A sponge steeped in wormwood and gall, a man through too much severity merciless, and neither able to endure nor to be endured of any.
Who will be careful for ever to hold that, which he knoweth cannot for ever be withheld from him? He which slackeneth the bridle to sin, doth thereby give it even the spur also 3. Take away fear, and that which presently succeedeth instead thereof is licentious desire. Greater offences therefore are punishable, but not pardonable, by the Church. If any Prophet or Apostle 4 be found to have remitted such transgressions, they did it not by the ordinary course of discipline, but by extraordinary power. For they also raised the dead, which none but God is able to do; they restored impotent x and lame men, a work peculiar to Jesus Christ; yea, that which Christ would not do, because executions of such severity beseemed not him who came to save and redeem the world by his sufferings, they by their power struck Elymas and Ananias, the one blind, and the other dead.
Approve first yourselves to be as they were Edition: current; Page: [ 81 ] Apostles or Prophets, and then take upon you to pardon all men. But if the authority you have be only ministerial, and no way sovereign, over-reach not the limits which God hath set you; know that to pardon capital sin is beyond your commission. In which respect Tertullian hath past with much less obloquy and reprehension than Novatian; who, broaching afterwards the same opinion, had not otherwise wherewith to countervail the offence he gave, and to procure it the like toleration. Novatian, at the first a stoical philosopher, which kind of men hath always accounted stupidity the highest top of wisdom, and commiseration the deadliest sin, became by institution and study the very same which the other had been before through a secret natural distemper, upon his conversion to the Christian faith and recovery from sickness, which moved him to receive the sacrament of Baptism in his bed.
The bishop contrary to the canons of the Church 1 would needs in special love towards him ordain him presbyter, which favour satisfied not him who thought himself worthy of greater place and dignity. He closed therefore with a number of well-minded men, and not suspicious what his secret purposes were, and having made them sure unto him by fraud, procureth his own consecration to be their bishop. His prelacy now was able as he thought to countenance what he intended to publish, and therefore his letters went presently abroad to sundry churches, advising them never to admit to the fellowship of holy mysteries such as had after baptism offered sacrifice to idols.
There was present at the council of Nice, together with other bishops, one Acesius a Novatianist 2 , touching whose diversity in opinion from the Church the emperor desirous to hear some reason, asked of him certain questions; for answer whereunto Acesius weaveth out a long history of things that Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] happened in the persecution under Decius, and of men, which to save life forsook faith.
But further to relate, or at all to refel the errors of misbelieving men concerning this point, is not now to our present purpose greatly necessary. Edition: ; Page: [ 7 ] y The Church may receive no small detriment by corrupt practice, even there where doctrine concerning the substance of things practised is free from any great or dangerous Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] corruption. They bind all men, upon pain of everlasting condemnation and death, to make confession to their ghostly fathers of every great offence they know, and can remember that they have committed against God.
Hath Christ in his Gospel so delivered the doctrine of repentance unto the world? Did his Apostles so preach it to nations? Have the Fathers so believed or so taught? Surely Novatian was not so merciless in depriving the Church of power to absolve some certain offenders, as they in imposing upon all a necessity thus to confess. Novatian would never a deny but God might remit that which the Church could not; whereas in the papacy it is maintained, that what we conceal from men, God himself shall never pardon. By which oversight, as they have surcharged the world with multitude, but much abated the weight of confession, so the careless manner of their absolution hath made discipline for the most part amongst them a bare formality; yea, rather a mean of emboldening unto vicious and wicked life, than either any help to prevent future, or medicine to remedy present evils in the soul of man.
The Fathers were slow and always fearful to absolve any before very manifest tokens given of a true penitent and contrite spirit. It was not their custom to remit sin first, and then to impose works of satisfaction, as the fashion of Rome is now; insomuch that this their preposterous course, and misordered practice b , hath bred in them also c an error concerning the end and purpose of these works. For against the guiltiness of sin, and the danger of everlasting condemnation thereby incurred, confession and absolution succeeding the same, are, as they take it, a remedy sufficient; and therefore what their penitentiaries do think good to enjoin d farther, Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] whether it be a number of Ave-Maries daily to be scored up, a journey of pilgrimage to be undertaken, BOOK VI.
And at this postern gate cometh in the whole mart of papal indulgences 1 , so infinitely strewed, that the pardon of sin, which heretofore was obtained hardly and by much suit, is with them become now almost impossible to be escaped. Edition: ; Page: [ 8 ] h To set down then the force of this sentence in absolving penitents; there are in sin these three things 2 : the act which passeth away and vanisheth; the pollution wherewith it leaveth the soul defiled; and the punishment whereunto they are made subject that have committed it.
The act of sin, is every deed, word, and thought against the law of God. The blot therefore of sin abideth, though the act be transitory. And out of both ariseth a present debt, to endure what punishment soever the evil which we have done deserveth; Edition: current; Page: [ 85 ] an obligation, in the chains whereof sinners by the justice of Almighty God continue bound till repentance loose them.
Nor doth God only bind sinners hands k and foot by the dreadful determination of his own unsearchable judgment against them; but sometime also the Church bindeth by the censures of her discipline 3 : so that when offenders upon their repentance are by the same discipline absolved, the Church looseth but her own bands l , the chains wherein she had tied them before. He only by himself forgiveth sin, who cleanseth the soul from inward blemish, and looseth the debt of eternal death.
So great a privilege he hath not given unto his priests, who notwithstanding are authorized to loose and bind, that is to say, to n declare who are bound, and who are loosed. Edition: ; Page: [ 9 ] q But the cause wherefore they are so stiff, and have forsaken their own master in this point, is for that they hold the private discipline of penitency to be a sacrament, absolution an external sign in this sacrament, the signs external of all sacraments in the New Testament to be both causes of that which they signify, and signs of that which they truly cause.
To this opinion concerning sacraments they are now tied by expounding a canon in the Florentine council 1 according to a former scholastical r invention received from Thomas. For his device it was, that the mercy of God, which useth sacraments as instruments whereby to work, endueth them at the time of their administration with supernatural force and ability to induce grace into the souls of men; even as the axe and saw do serve s to bring timber into that fashion which the mind of the artificer intendeth 2.
Edition: ; Page: [ 10 ] x In which construction, seeing that our books y and writings have made it known to the world how we join with them, it seemeth very hard and injurious dealing, that Bellarmine throughout the whole course of his second book De Sacramentis in Genere 2 , should so boldly face down his adversaries, as if their opinion were, that sacraments are naked, empty, and uneffectual signs; wherein there is no other force than only such as in pictures to stir up the mind, that so by theory and speculation of things represented, faith may grow: finally, that all the operation which sacraments Edition: current; Page: [ 89 ] have, is a sensible and divine instruction.
For so God hath instituted and ordained, that, together with due administration and receipt of sacramental signs, there shall proceed from himself grace effectual to sanctify, to cure, to comfort, and whatsoever is else a for the good of the souls of men. Howbeit this opinion 3 Thomas rejecteth, under pretence that it maketh sacramental words and elements to be in themselves no more than signs, whereas they ought to be held as causes of that they signify.
Now they which pretend to follow Thomas, differ from him in two points. For first, they make grace an immediate effect of the outward sign, which he for the dignity and excellency thereof was afraid to do. Are they able to explain unto us, or themselves Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] to conceive, what they mean when they thus speak? For example, let them teach us, in the sacrament of Baptism, what it is for water to be moved till it bring forth grace.
And, as I think, we thus far avouch no more than they themselves confess to be very true. If any thing displease them, it is because we add to these premisses another assertion; that with the outward sign God joineth his Holy Spirit, and so the whole instrument of God bringeth that to pass, whereunto the baser and meaner part could not extend. Notwithstanding if God did himself teach his Church in this case to believe that which he hath not given us capacity to comprehend, how incredible soever it may seem, yet our wits should submit themselves, and reason give place unto faith therein.
But they 2 yield it to be no question of faith, how grace doth proceed from sacraments; if in general they be acknowledged true instrumental causes, by the ministry whereof men receive divine grace; and that they which impute grace to the only operation of God himself, concurring with the external sign, do no less acknowledge the true efficacy of the sacrament, than they that ascribe 3 the same to the quality of the sign Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] applied, or to the motion of God applying, and so far carrying it, till grace be thereby f not created, but extracted out of the natural possibility of the soul.
Nevertheless this last philosophical imagination if I may call it philosophical, which useth the terms, but overthroweth the rules of philosophy, and hath no article of faith to support it, but whatsoever it be, they follow it in a manner all; they cast off the first opinion, wherein is most perspicuity and strongest evidence of certain truth.
Many of the ancient Fathers, presupposing that the faithful before Christ had not till the time of his coming that perfect life and salvation which they looked for and we possess, thought likewise their sacraments to be but prefigurations of that which ours in present do exhibit. Where God doth work and use these outward means, wherein he neither findeth nor planteth force and aptness towards his intended purpose, such means are but signs to bring men to Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] the consideration of his own g omnipotent power, which without the use of things sensible would not be marked.
Sacraments, that is to say, the outward signs in sacraments, work nothing till they be blessed and sanctified of God. Shall we say that sacraments are like magical signs, if thus they have their effect? Is it magic for God to manifest by things sensible what he doth, and to do by his own most glorious Spirit really what he manifesteth in his sacraments? The first is by way of concomitance and consequence to deliver the rest also that either accompany or ensue.
It is not here, as in cases of mutual commerce, where diverse persons have divers acts to be performed in their own behalf; a creditor to shew his bill, and a debtor to pay his money. But God and man do here meet in one action upon a third, in whom, as it is the work of God to create grace, so it is his work by the hand of the minister to apply a sign which should betoken, and his work to annex, that Spirit, which shall effect it.
The action therefore is but one, God the author thereof, and man a cooperator h by him assigned to work for, with, and under him. God the giver of grace by the outward ministry of man, so far forth as he authorizeth man to apply the sacraments of grace in the soul, which he alone worketh, without either instrument or co-agent. Edition: ; Page: [ 12 ] i Whereas therefore with us the remission of sin is ascribed unto God, as a thing which proceedeth from him only, and presently followeth upon the virtue of true repentance appearing in man; that which we attribute to the virtue, Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] they do not only impute to the sacrament of repentance, but having made repentance a sacrament, and thinking of sacraments as they do, they are enforced to make the ministry of his priests and their absolution a cause of that which the sole omnipotency of God worketh.
Shall absolution be a cause producing and working that effect which is always brought forth without it, and had before absolution be sought n? But when they which are thus beforehand pardoned of God shall come to be also assoiled by the Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] priest, I would know what force his absolution hath in this case? Are they able to say here that the priest doth remit any thing?
It sufficeth, I think, both against their constructions to have proved that they ground an untruth on his speech, and in behalf of our own, that his words without any such transposition do very well admit the sense we give them; which is, that he taketh to himself the lawful proceedings of authority in his name, and that the act of spiritual authority in this case, is by sentence to acquit or pronounce them free from sin whom they judge to be sincerely and truly penitent; which interpretation they themselves do acknowledge, though not sufficient, yet very true.
Absolution 1 , they say, declareth indeed, but this is not all, for it likewise maketh innocent; which addition being an untruth proved, our truth granted hath we o hope sufficiency without it, and consequently our opinion therein neither to be challenged as untrue, nor as unsufficient. Edition: ; Page: [ 13 ] p To rid themselves out of these briers, and to make remission of sins an effect of absolution, notwithstanding that which hitherto hath been said, they have two shifts. As first, that in many penitents there is but attrition 2 of heart, which attrition they define to be grief proceeding from fear without love; and to these they say absolution doth give that contrition Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] whereby men are really purged from sin.
Secondly, that even where contrition or inward repentance doth cleanse without absolution, the reason why it cometh so to pass is 1 , because such contrites intend and desire absolution, though they have it not. Which two things granted; the one, that absolution given maketh them contrite that are not, the other, that even in them which are contrite, the cause why God remitteth sin is the purpose or desire they have to receive absolution 2 ; we are not to stand against a sequel so clear and manifest as this, that always remission of sin proceedeth from absolution either had or desired.
But should a reasonable man give credit to their bare conceit, and because their positions have driven them to imagine absolving of unsufficiently-disposed penitents to be a real creating of further virtue in them, must all other men think it true q? Have they borne us all this while in hand that contrition is a part of the Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] matter of their sacrament s , a condition or preparation of the mind towards grace to be received by absolution in the form of their sacrament?
But let this pass how it will; seeing the question is not, what virtues u God may accept in penitent sinners, but what grace absolution actually given doth really bestow upon them. If it were, as they will have it, that God, regarding the humiliation of a contrite spirit, because there is joined therewith a lowly desire of the sacrament of priestly absolution, pardoneth immediately and forgiveth all offences; doth this any thing help to prove that absolution received afterward x Edition: current; Page: [ ] from the priest, can more than declare him already pardoned which did desire it?
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To desire absolution, presupposing it commanded, is obedience; and obedience in that case is a branch of the virtue of repentance; which virtue being thereby made effectual to the taking away of sins without the sacrament of repentance, is it not an argument that the sacrament of absolution hath here no efficacy, but the virtue of contrition worketh all? For how should any effect ensue from causes which actually are not? The sacrament must be applied wheresoever any grace doth proceed from it. Wherefore the further we wade, the better we see it still appear, that the priest doth never in absolution, no not so much as by way of service and ministry, really either forgive the act, take away the uncleanness, or remove the punishment of sin: but if the party penitent come contrite, he hath by their own grant absolution before absolution; if not contrite, although the priest should ten thousand times absolve y him, all were in vain.
His absolution hath in their doctrine certain other effects specified 4 but this denied. Edition: ; Page: [ 14 ] a Now the last and sometimes hardest to be satisfied by repentance, are our minds; and our minds we have then satisfied, when the conscience is of guilty become clear. Which point sith very infidels and heathens have observed in the nature of sin for the disease they felt, though they knew no remedy to help it we are not rashly to despise those sentences which are the testimonies of their experience touching this point. For, as the body is rent with stripes, so the mind with guiltiness of cruelty, lust, and wicked resolutions.
Which furies brought the Emperor Tiberius sometimes into such perplexity, that writing to the senate, his wonted art of dissimulation failed him utterly in this case; and whereas it had been ever his peculiar delight so to speak that no man might be able to sound his meaning, he had not Edition: current; Page: [ ] the power to conceal what he felt through the secret scourge of an evil conscience, though no necessity did now enforce b to disclose the same.
Neither are we to marvel that these things, known unto all, do stay so few from being authors of their own woe. Are we not bound then with all thankfulness to acknowledge his infinite goodness and mercy, which hath revealed unto us the way how to rid ourselves of these mazes; the way how to shake off that yoke, which no flesh is able to bear; the way how to change most grisly horror into a comfortable apprehension of heavenly joy?
Edition: ; Page: [ 15 ] f Whereunto there are many which labour with so much the greater difficulty, because imbecility of mind doth not suffer them to censure rightly their own doings: some fearful lest the enormity of their crimes be so impardonable that no repentance can do them good; some lest the imperfection of their repentance make it uneffectual to the taking away of sin.
The one drive all things to this issue, whether Edition: current; Page: [ ] they be not men which g have sinned against the Holy Ghost; the other to this, what repentance is sufficient to clear sinners, and to assure them that they are delivered. Such as by error charge themselves of unpardonable sin, must think, it may be they deem that impardonable which is not.
Our Saviour speaketh indeed of a h blasphemy which shall never be forgiven. But have they any sure and infallible knowledge what that blasphemy is? If not, why are they unjust and cruel to their own souls, imagining certainty of guiltiness in a crime concerning the very nature whereof they are uncertain?
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It was for them in this case impossible to be renewed by any repentance: because they were now in the state of Satan and his angels, the Judge of quick and dead had passed his irrevocable sentence against them. For all other offenders, without exception or stint, whether they be strangers that seek access, or followers that will make return unto God; upon the tender of their repentance, the grant of his grace standeth everlastingly signed with his blood in the book of eternal life.
These cast themselves first into very great, and peradventure needless agonies, through misconstruction of things spoken about proportioning our griefs to our sins 1 , for which they never think they have wept and mourned enough; yea, if they have not always a stream of tears at commandment o , they take it for a sign of a heart p congealed and hardened in sin; when to keep the wound of contrition bleeding, they unfold the circumstances of their transgressions, and endeavour to leave out q nothing which may be heavy against themselves.
Yet do what they can, they are still fearful, lest herein also they do not that which they ought and might. Notwithstanding, forasmuch as they wrong themselves with over rigorous and extreme exactions, by means whereof they fall sometimes into such perplexities as can hardly be allayed; it hath therefore pleased Almighty God, in tender commiseration over these imbecillities of men, to ordain for their spiritual and ghostly comfort consecrated persons, which by sentence of power and authority given from above, may as it were out of his very mouth ascertain timorous and doubtful Edition: current; Page: [ ] minds in their own particular, ease them of all their scrupulosities, leave them settled in peace and satisfied touching the mercy of God towards them.
To use the benefit of this t help for our better satisfaction in such cases is so natural, that it can be forbidden no man; but yet not so necessary, that all men should be in case to need it. Edition: ; Page: [ 18 ] u They are of the two the happier therefore that can content and satisfy themselves by judging discreetly what they perform, and soundly v what God doth require of them. If there be a will and desire to return, he receiveth, embraceth, omitteth nothing which may restore us to former happiness; yea, that which is yet above all the rest, albeit we cannot in the duty of satisfying him attain what we ought and would, but come far behind our mark, he taketh nevertheless in good worth that little which we do; be it never so mean, we lose not our labour therein.
I will therefore end with St. Let not therefore the unperfect fear; let them only proceed and go forward. Notes upon the 6 Booke. But then I could wishe that sentence to be divided into two; for yt is long. But the word will not be generally understood.
This was the sentence of a Pope, as I conceave, chalenging unto him self that which by us is denyed him: and therefore yt may be this allegation is not so fitt, although I very well understand in what sense yt is alleaged by you. But I may be deceaved in this matter because yt is a matter of story, whereof I have no knowledge. Raynoldes note in the former bookes. Eyther yt is false written, or yt must be otherwise explained in my opinion. Cite your author. You may thinke upon these wordes whether they do not seeme to imply some repugnancy to the former: and although I know they may be reconciled, yet perhaps it were not amisse if before hand they were qualifyed.
But because [this] opinion is newe and contrary to that which hath been receaved, [I] could wishe that common opinion were sett downe and their reference to the speach of Moses 5 specified together with the reasons of your opinion on the other side, and the dissimilitude of Moses speach from the Apostles. Moreover because yt may seeme but a sleight kynd of endamagement which the Apostle doth wishe unto himself, yf yt reach no farther than you seeme to understand it, especially in theis dayes wherein separation from the Church is taken for a matter of nothing: yt may be shewed how highely they accompted of the visible and outward communion of saintes, as may appeare in that Psalme where David extolleth the state of the sparrowe as I remember even in that respect because she had her nest in the temple.
But of this enough. Gregorie 1. Gregory Nyssene, because the later Gregory will otherwise be understood. For myne owne part I do not conceave wherein the distinction lyeth betweene causes spirituall and temporall, although yt be manifest that a distinction there is betweene them.
And in the practise of the commonwealth causes spirituall in some cases are determinable in civill courtes, as tithes, perjury; and causes temporall in the spirituall courtes, as testamentes, which in my opinion are merely civill: so as I see the division with us is not according to the nature of the thing, but as lawe or custom hath prevayled. It may be some more pregnant testimony might be found. For the thing I thinke is true. And therefore if any testimony could here be alleaged of the exercise of excommunication before Victor, Edition: current; Page: [ ] it would be very fitt. For this and the like if you cannot call to remembrance any cleare testimony, it may be D.
Raynoldes were able to furnish you, with a word writing unto him, when you send your booke. The next sentence then must followe. You may polish yt at your pleasure. And I thinke either something is to be sayd in defence thereof 3 , or this clause to be left out which doth seeme to blame the exercise of yt, as now it is used. You knowe that no man is excommunicate but for contumacy, which in the least thinges for the most part is greatest, because the more easily the thing is done, the greater is the contempt in neglecting yt.
So as theyr cavil is but slander when they say, we are excommunicate for fees 4 : for it is not in that regard, but because the Church hath no other meanes to make men appeare or do theyr dutyes but this onely. This point may be thought upon. If other meanes were appointed whereby the Edition: current; Page: [ ] spirituall courtes might punishe contumacy in such cases, I thinke yt were not amisse, but no other beeing, that must be used. It may be this marginall note might be brought into the text. Which incomparable vertue because we cannot deny to our Saviour Christ, Edition: current; Page: [ ] we ought not to deny him any souverainety, nor to adioyne unto him any assistants.
Reade the sentence, and you shall perceave my meaning. You may say: furthermore, or, moreover. You terme yt sometymes chiefety of dominion, sometymes souverainety, sometimes imperiall power. I thinke theys wordes souverainety of dominion or souverayne dominion are the fittest to be alwayes used, and plainest to be understood. If you be of this mynd, you may alter those places before, and make them all alike.
For the greater his auctority is who alleageth it, the plainer I would have the inconsequence of his reason to be made. This I leave to your consideration. This clause I understand not, for whether those lay elders were the same with the auncients of the civill state or others, it commeth all to one passe in my opinion, if it appeare they dealt in causes spirituall.
Had they no wives nor servants? If they had, then they were in the number. Looke to the quotations in the margine that they be right and rightly placed. Quote theys thinges. I do not understand to what purpose this marginall note serveth, if it be compared with the text, and for ought I see it may be spared. The Baldwins were civil engineers from Woburn, Massachusetts. Loammi Baldwin began his career during the late eighteenth century and in oversaw the construction of the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts.
Three of his sons—Loammi Jr. Loammi Jr. Finding the law distasteful, he turned to civil engineering. James Fowle pursued a career as a merchant before he became an engineer. He would eventually work for railroads and undertake a study of the quality of the water supply in Boston. George Rumford designed and built the Boston Marine Railway and consulted on the construction of waterworks in Charleston, Massachusetts, and Quebec, Canada.
Collection materials reflect the professional lives of the Baldwins as civil engineers. Illustrative material is chiefly in the hand of George Rumford Baldwin. Of particular importance are his drawings of wooden framing patterns. Book contains hundreds of designs, both transfer-printed and hand-drawn, for the decoration of pottery. Floral and geometric patterns predominate. Many are on paper watermarked , though some bear dates in the s. Recipes for various cements and pottery types are also included. In addition to silver pieces, records in this account book mention such items as clothing, guns, food, brass, iron, textiles, tools, toys, and writing materials.
The pen-and-ink illustrations depict the oysterman, his daughter, a house, and surrounding area. Collection includes two small manuscripts and thirteen loose accounts that primarily document the construction of a store. Details include information on wages, materials needed for building, and such construction activities as setting glass, painting, and framing. A few miscellaneous accounts for food and clothing round out the collection. Drawings and tracings, most in pencil and colored pencil, are of room interiors and furniture. A variety of styles is featured, and there are many depictions of decorative detail, some appearing full-scale.
In many instances clients are identified. Notations in French. Some furniture sketches dating from and are included. The bulk of the volume features references to repair work, installations, alterations, and general carpentry. Joris Brinckerhoff, also a merchant, replaced Schuyler in Volume records the appraised inventories of various estates and ships, noting the quantity and value of items in English pounds.
The majority of the valued items are household goods and personal belongings. Members of the Bancker family were prominent in Philadelphia social circles. Charles N. Bancker was a successful businessman.
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Includes business and personal papers of the Banckers, especially Charles. There are letters, bills, and inventories of household goods. One correspondent was Thomas Sully, who wrote Charles N. Material reveals how the company obtained raw materials, marketed its wares, and supplied its customers with finished products.
Nathaniel Bangs was a furnituremaker from Amherst, Massachusetts, who later relocated to Salem, Massachusetts. Manuscript records the furniture that Bangs made during a forty-year period beginning in He also painted sleighs, mended rakes, fixed wagons, etc. Joel Bangs used the volume later to record his activities as a laborer, the construction of a house in Athol, Massachusetts, and personal finances. Volume also contains genealogical information on the Bangs family. Volume includes references to the pieces of furniture that Banks made and repaired and notes his carpentry work.
Manuscript contains many references to agricultural pursuits and indicates that he bartered to settle some payments. Members of the Bannister family were general merchants in Newport, Rhode Island. Records include daybooks, letter books, cash books, ledgers, and a memorandum book, all of which chronicle nearly eighty years of business activity. Accounts relate to making furniture and chairs, employing workmen, exchanging services, and purchasing supplies for the cabinetmaking trade.
Original manuscript at the Middletown, Connecticut Historical Society; another microfilm copy located at the Connecticut Historical Society. Manuscript chiefly documents amounts of money owed to Barnes for furniture he made, including tables, beds, cradles, candle stands, bookcases, coffins, chests, and bureaus. Some entries include a description of the piece. Barnes worked with cherry, poplar, pine, and walnut. Manuscript contains records of payments made by Isaac, Abraham, and Thomas Barnett for such personal expenses as taxes, schooling, and medical care as well as business expenditures for turning, lumber, sawing, etc.
The miscellaneous works of Charles Barrell … performed at Mr. Wymans boarding school in Medford. Barrell used calligraphy to head the different sections of his book. Joseph Barrell was a successful merchant from Boston and nearby Waltham, Massachusetts; his father and brother were also merchants. He was included in a list of members of the Sons of Liberty, and he ran unsuccessfully for governor of Massachusetts.
In the s Barrell acquired more than two hundred acres of land overlooking the Charles River at Cobble Hill in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Barrett was a native of Worthing, England, who lived with his father in Jamaica in the s. By he had been away from his native country for nine years. Barrett was fascinated by British naval shipyards as a result of his military service.
Interspersed among the pages of this manuscript are forty-five engravings of English landmarks. Includes the text of a lecture that Barritt gave on January 20, , before the New York Scientific Association and a letter that he wrote to its secretary apologizing for missing a meeting of the association. David Barrows was a maker of frames, a knitter, and a manufacturer of hosiery. He lived in Nicetown and then Germantown, present-day neighborhoods of Philadelphia.
Ten of the letters were written to David Barrows and five were from him. They all relate to business and family matters. Professional concerns relate to the quantity of mitts and hose knitted, the buying and dyeing yarn, the marketing of products, fluctuations in prices, the selling of frames, etc. Most letters circulated among family members expressed financial concerns. Records the activities of a busy blacksmith. George W. Barrows was a tanner in Harrison, Maine.
Records leather-working projects and the buying and selling of such items as sole leather, sheepskin, hide, and hair. Barrows also made and repaired footwear. Rogers L. Collection includes invoices relating to the purchases by Barstow and members of his family of a wide variety of household goods.
Most purchases were made from Boston area stores; foreign merchandise came from England and France. Josiah Bartlett was a physician and political figure from Kingston, New Hampshire. He was a member of the Continental Congress, signer of the Declaration of Independence, chief justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court, and governor of his state. Francesco Bartolozzi, an engraver, was born in Florence, Italy.
He studied at the Accademia del Disegno and learned engraving from Joseph Wagner. He became a Royal Academician in , and in he accepted the post of director of the National Academy of Lisbon. Bartolozzi is known to have engraved many paintings by Giovanni Battista. He popularized the stipple process. Scrapbook contains a few invitations engraved by Bartolozzi and others.
Most engravings depict classical scenes. Includes one hundred swatches of woven silk, lithographed plates depicting looms, weaving patterns, diagrams, etc. Weavers drafts in the volume are both lithographed and sketched in pen and pencil. Floral and geometric patterns predominate, and there are a few crests. The lithographs all bear the names I. Bartsch and Al. Captions and manuscript notations in German. Contains mathematical computations, calligraphy, and examples of student exercises in the calculation of fractions, proportions, troy weight, money, liquid measures, etc.
Some of the volume pertains to maintaining financial account books. Friedrich Bastian was a Pennsylvania German dyer. In he moved from Jonestown, Pennsylvania, to nearby Middletown. After Bastian stopped using these volumes, Jacob Strouss, a carpenter and coffinmaker, kept his records in them.
Some domestic accounts are also included. Book contains mathematical problems and tables of basic arithmetic measurements. Headings done in decorative calligraphy, showing scrolls and other ornamentation. Bawden included pen-and-ink drawings of birds. Manuscript contains German coverlet design patterns. Stella P. Bayly recorded directions for sixteen projects that she undertook as part of a sewing course. Her lessons included exercises in basting, weaving, hemming, making button holes, preparing seams, and making patches. In her workbook she wrote directions on the left side of a page opening, and on the right side she sewed in what she called models of completed projects.
Bayly used such fabrics as muslin, cotton, damask, flannel, and percale. Manuscripts document payment of duties on cargoes that included rum, textiles, sugar, glass, buckles, looking glasses, earthenware, etc. Consists of exercises in elementary arithmetic, weights and measures, fractions, decimals, calculations for determining the cost of a product, and the computation of annuities. Entries record money paid by Beakley for a number of items: church pew rent, taxes, street paving, painting a house and its shutters, chairs, medical, bills, the burial of an infant, etc.
Beal shoed horses and oxen; mended guns, chains, and plow irons; made axes, spikes, hinges, and nails; altered chisels; hooped barrels; and crafted plow parts. Like many of his contemporaries, he sometimes accepted goods for payment. Collection includes bills for such goods and services as clothes, yarn, blacksmithing, painting, and window repair; letters that document personal engagements and the payment of accounts; and papers of a legal nature that focus on the case Jarves vs. Freeman, in which Jarves was accused of slander. Includes handwriting exercises by Beaman while he was a student.
Covers of the two volumes are illustrated with engravings of children engaged in various activities and a stone dwelling situated among large trees. Back covers contain multiplication tables. Levi and especially Jabez Beardsley are well represented in the volume.
The accounts in this manuscript record dyeing, fulling, pressing, carding, and dressing fabrics from to Most of the handful of post entries refer to the milling of grains. Entries record the names of customers, work performed or objects sold, and amounts paid or owed. Book consists of mathematical and writing exercises, including prayers, poems, sayings, and sample pages from an account book.
The front and back covers have illustrations of birds identified by German captions. Drawings of flowers appear throughout the volume. Charles Frederick Beckel cleaned and repaired watches; sold silver spoons, musical instruments, and everpointed pencils; and mended chairs and umbrellas in Doylestown and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Pages toward the end of the volume record expenses for building and expanding a foundry.
The Doylestown portion includes an account with the town band. John Becker operated a general store in Lititz, Pennsylvania, which seems to have been connected to the Moravian Church. Records include a ledger from the s and two other volumes with store inventories. Accounts for building the store and a new hall are also featured. Cards depict convertible furniture or items that could be turned into beds. Collection consists of cards inspired by Japanese design. Works of major and minor American lithographers are represented. A few cards are Japanese woodcuts that were overprinted in the United States.
There is a full range of products advertised, including clothing, tea, dyes, and carpets. Other products mentioned include gloves, parasols, ribbons, scarves, collars, knives and forks, etc. Many of the firms he did business with were based in either New York City or Boston. Scattered throughout the volumes are recipes for paints, dyes, etc. Carl Greenleaf Beede wrote about topics in the decorative arts, especially furniture, for the Christian Science Monitor during the s and s. He resided in West Hartford, Connecticut, and then in Boston.
An outline and notes for a book on American furniture are also included. The book, which was never published, was to contain a chapter on the history of American furniture collecting, collectors, and collections. Beede gathered some of his information by writing to museums and inquiring about their collection development policies. Collection includes two sketchbooks of drawings of many kinds of furniture done from to ; an account book with painting instructions and work records dating from to ; and a deed for land in Bedminster Township, Bucks County, from Waldron Phoenix Belknap Jr.
He became an investment banker in New York City. But an abiding interest in architecture inspired him to return to Harvard for a graduate degree in architecture, whereupon he opened his own practice in Boston. He also conducted genealogical research, studied American portrait painting, and established the thesis that English mezzotints served as prototypes for American paintings. Belknap belonged to a number of professional associations and hereditary societies. Microfilm reel contains typescripts of wills, estate inventories, and other documents relating to the many families that Belknap researched.
John G. Bell was a taxidermist in New York City. Diary records a trip that Bell took from New York to Panama and then to California to search for different specimens of birds. He wrote of his experiences in Panama, his travels by boat, and the Gold Rush. Includes account books of various ships on which Bell served as supercargo to China, India, and the Isle de France. Papers include shipping documents, such as reports on trade, bills of lading, and invoices as well as accounts of New York merchants and their Chinese counterparts.
Gottfried Ferdinand Belser was born in Germany, and he emigrated to Boston during the early nineteenth century. A Boston city directory lists a Godfrey F. Belser as a lace weaver in its edition. Volume contains thirty-five pages of patterns for weaving what appear to be bed coverlets. It also contains twenty-five pages of German text dating from to in which Belser describes his apprenticeship, masters, places of work, and methods of weaving.
Other pages contain directions for dyeing cloth, formulas for removing stains from cloth, etc. John Henry Belter was born in Germany and apprenticed in furnituremaking in Ulm. In the early s, he emigrated to New York, where he operated a furnituremaking business.
Belter is known for developing the laminated, carved rococo revival style of furniture that bears his name. He patented a construction technique for pressed-work furniture. Domestic matters are also covered within the manuscript. Edward Bennet was a shoemaker from Tiverton, Rhode Island.
He and his wife, Abigail, had several children. In addition some personal expenses appear. The last leaf of the manuscript relates to the settlement of his estate. Manuscript contains the alto part to about fifty psalm tunes. Each is titled, and the meter of the text is indicated. Bound in are two leaves of a published work, Of Tuning and Forming the Voice. Bennett did work for both men and boys. He records working on bobsleds, seats, coffins, cupboards, and sashes. The volume also includes a record of land Bennett purchased from Ebenezer Hill in Fairfield, Connecticut.
Stuttson Benson lived in Pompey, New York, earning his income from agricultural pursuits and weaving cloth. In addition there are miscellaneous accounts in another hand relating to activities in Fabius, New York, a town some six miles from Pompey. The receipt book, kept from to , mentions such items as clothing, food, copper, iron, textiles, etc. William Bentley was a furnituremaker from Westford, New York, who worked from about to In addition to making and repairing many types of furniture, Bentley made coffins, fixed wagons and sleds, did some sawing, and drew bricks.
He recorded recipes for staining wood and referred to his tools, hardware, and farm produce. David J. Includes the daybook maintained by John Henry Berdan to record the activities of his store from January to February ; a draft of his will from ; notebooks, lists of expenses, and miscellaneous writings kept by David J. Berdan while at Rutgers from to ; and family letters. Some of the manuscripts have colorful decorative headings reminiscent of Pennsylvania German Fraktur.
It was part of his estate in In Ege purchased the furnace. These four manuscript volumes record financial transactions relating to the Berkshire Furnace. Items mentioned include plate stoves, Franklin stoves, kettles, pots, skillets, sash weights, etc. Volumes also provide information about furnace employees, including information about their accounts with the company store. John M. Besson was a dry-goods merchant in Philadelphia and a member of the Resolution Hose Company of firefighters. Collection consists of five of at least nine volumes of clippings, drawings, and excerpts assembled by Besson.
This box, fashioned by Carl Beuttner, a goldsmith from Winterthur, Switzerland, at one time contained jewelry. The Bidermann family was from Winterthur, Switzerland. He joined the firm in In he married Evelina du Pont. During the mid s, he assumed temporary leadership of the company. Letters are from various family members. Also included is a letter book belonging to James Antoine Bidermann.
Albert Bierstadt was a landscape and animal painter. A native of Germany, he came to America with his parents as an infant and grew up in New Bedford, Massachusetts. When he was twenty-three, he returned to Europe to study painting. The artwork features watercolors of butterflies and a sketch of a mill. In her cookbook Laura H. Bigelow, a resident of Waterville, New York, wrote recipes for cakes, cookies, tarts, puddings, pies, and jellies. Also included are instructions for making yellow, green, and blue dyes. He included a record of furniture he made, apprentices he trained, a receipt for ornamenting chairs, and a recipe for copal varnish.
This artificial and still open collection contains handwritten bills for a variety of household products and personal goods. Most of the bills are from New England and the Middle Atlantic states. Of the or so bills in the collection, 60 percent are from the nineteenth century while 40 percent are from the eighteenth century.
Finding aid available, listing the item or items purchased, the buyer and seller, location, and date. Collection consists of hundreds of bills, many representing businesses based in New York City.
- U.S. Supreme Court.
- The Pursuit of Happiness: An Economy of Well-Being (Brookings Focus Books);
- The Nightmare Machine.
Most of the firms performed renovation work on houses and apartments. Work included carpentry, paper hanging, painting, roofing, wiring and lighting installation, decorating, and plumbing. Thomas Birch was a marine, landscape, portrait, and miniature painter. A native of England, he came to the United States in with his father, another artist who was his eventual partner in business.
Birch exhibited widely and is perhaps best known for his marine scenes and paintings of War of naval battles. Abel S. Bissell operated a general store in Hebron, Connecticut. Manuscript records items that Bissell purchased at wholesale prices for later retail sale. He bought locally as well as in New York City. Emily Perkins Bissell, a social welfare worker, generous benefactor of various charities, and antisuffragist, is best remembered for introducing Christmas Seals to the United States in to raise funds for a tuberculosis sanatorium in Delaware. Collection was originally in a wallpaper-lined box, perhaps of Chinese origin, that has been dated to the s.
Daniel Bixby was a furniture- and chairmaker in Francestown, New Hampshire. As a young man he built a sawmill on Brennan Brook and later constructed a device for cutting and putting heads on nails. In he operated the Bixby Box Shop, first used for cabinetwork and later for making fancy boxes.
Manuscript entries include the date, furniture form or repair work requested, and the price. Customer names are not given. Toward the end of the volume is a list of store expenses featuring costs of supplies. There is also an inventory of goods on hand on January 1, When Sarah Bixby kept this volume, she was a teacher in a one-room schoolhouse near Mayville, New York.
Bixby wrote about teaching, her young scholars, social activities, churchgoing, and fancywork. Evidence suggests that Samuel and William Black were tobacco merchants working in various parts of Fairfield County, Ohio. Collection documents purchases made by the Blacks. Things they bought include tobacco, magazine subscriptions, real estate, food and beverages, hardware, and dry goods. Robert Blackwell was the minister of St.
During the Revolutionary War, Blackwell served as a chaplain for the military, and he worked as a surgeon at Valley Forge. Collection includes Blackwell family personal and business papers, including receipts, a will, promissory notes, descriptions of real estate properties, and a notebook detailing investments. Nothing is known about Anna Blair beyond what her sketchbook reveals. Most of her drawings depict landscapes or views of historic buildings.
Artwork is in pencil or watercolor. Gertie Blair was learning to sew when she kept this volume. Includes seventeen sets of directions for specific sewing projects, including hemming, making folds at corners, preparing seams, making button holes, darning stockings, etc. Blair wrote her directions on the left page and included a finished product on the right.
Consists of a hand-colored lithographic panorama depicting what appears to be a parade of French soldiers during the government of Napoleon III. A full range of soldiers is present: infantry, cavalry, lancers, military engineers, music regiment, officers, etc. Captioned in French. Joshua A. Most of his ventures seem to have been in the Mediterranean, Italy, and Greece in particular.
The letters include orders to captains, inquiries concerning insurance, directions for cargo shipment, and instructions regarding financial arrangements and quarantines. Such activities as mending chaise bodies; shoeing horses and oxen; fixing wheels, plates, teapots, and chains; rimming kettles and buckets; and crafting horse collars, hooks, hoes, nails, and andirons are all recorded in this manuscript.
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One volume is a ledger kept from to , and the other volume is a daybook used between and The manuscripts describe the full range of activities of a rural silversmith and jeweler, including crafting and mending items, silvering coffins, and working on harness buckles. Elnora Blanchard, a resident of Cincinnati, included both handwritten recipes and clippings of recipes in this book. Most were for confections and sweets. She also included clippings about historical figures and poems. The self-taught penman; or, everyman his own writing master, improved by M.
Blocher, author, proprietor, and publisher. This penmanship workbook, once owned by Robert May, a resident of Lebanon, Pennsylvania, contains instructions in typeface as well as manuscript examples of handwriting. Examples to be copied include strokes, letters, words, sentences, brief letters, and financial documents. Volume, published in New York City, by John Ghegan, contains twenty-eight inscriptions of friendship, some done calligraphically, and seven lithographs. In addition to various textiles, a wide range of domestic products is represented.
After page , the style of the entries changes. Transactions with spinners, weavers, tailors, painters, and blacksmiths are recorded. Copybooks contain writing exercises by Blood when he was a student. All four have covers with engraved illustrations, advertisements, or multiplication tables on them. Papers consist of legal documents, marriage and birth certificates, bills, and letters from Philadelphia, England, and France. Many refer to Philadelphia merchant Joseph Donath; correspondence and research materials collected by Maurice Brix on American silversmithing; and clippings, photographs, and research notes on American silver objects.
Elisha Blossom Jr. In addition to making and repairing furniture, he sold hardware. Much of the manuscript is in German, suggesting a connection to the Pennsylvania German community. The illustrations show late eighteenth-century English costume and room interiors. Includes many American and some English bookplates. Mottoes printed on the plates are generally written in Latin, though a few are in English. Bookplates identify the owners of books and frequently feature vignettes.
Dawkins, ca. Contains recipes for a variety of foods and for medical and household mixtures. Volume includes running chapter heads and engraved headpieces for each chapter. In this volume Jacob Boughman, a resident of Wilmington, Delaware, recorded exercises in geometry, trigonometry, and navigation. Consists of photographs, books of photos, illustrated cards, trade cards, advertisements, and drawings depicting many kinds of furniture made during the later decades of the nineteenth century. Prices and ordering information are often present.
Most firms represented were from the Midwest. The drawings both complement and duplicate the photos and feature furniture decoration. He made such items as cases of drawers, coffins, bookcases, and candle stands. Volumes include records of such work as making and repairing chains, wagon parts, hinges, barrel hoops, horseshoes, coffee mills, and plows. Bowen lived in Bangor, Maine, sold insurance, served as postmaster, and worked in a theater. He was probably in his sixties or seventies when he wrote this diary. John T. Bowen was an artist and lithographer.
He relocated to New York City from London in He then moved to Philadelphia in Volume includes twenty hand-colored lithographs showing scenes in Philadelphia and the vicinity, including such sites as the Merchants Exchange, Fairmount, Moyamensing Prison, the Alms House, Laurel Hill Cemetery, etc. Manuscript consists primarily of pencil, ink, and wash drawings of furniture parts and ornamental engravings, featuring floral decorations, finials, a mechanism for opening the leaves of a table, details of an escutcheon, etc.
Pin holes in some drawings suggest that they were copied. Also included are a set of notes on the construction of a table and a two-page account of a period during which Bowman worked for a Joseph Dales in and Following a devastating fire that destroyed the concern, Jonathan and Benjamin Austin Jr. Listings for the firm in Boston city directories disappear after Ledger records business activities relating to a thriving colonial maritime trade. Seemingly complete cargoes of several ships are listed.
Thomas Boynton was a furnituremaker and ornamental painter in Boston in and then in Windsor, Vermont, from to Included in these records are ledgers, a daybook, an invoice book, and a purchase and sales book. Entries are for japanning, varnishing, making, repairing, and painting various pieces of furniture. Gotham Bradbury was born in Chesterville, Maine, and later resided in nearby Farmington. He worked as a farmer for most of his life, though in he worked as a shipbuilder in Bath, Maine.
People called him Captain Bradbury, presumably because of his military service. Diary entries document the active life of a nonagenarian. Bradbury mended fences, made wooden spoons for cooking, split wood for his heating stove, gardened, and made household repairs. He was an inveterate reader and enjoyed writing letters.
Bradbury offered comments about changes he witnessed in society, politics, and medicine and described his first experience with the telephone. Bills in the collection are for such items as pots and pans, hat boxes, trunks and trunk locks, and rocking chairs. Most notable, however, are the numerous dry goods mentioned, including gingham, cambric, damask, muslin, flannel, and satin, among others. Volume includes information about the coaches that Bradley built, the prices he charged, and personal financial transactions.
Bradley sometimes worked with E. Ward and T. Amos Bradley was an East Haven, Connecticut, furnituremaker. He served as a selectman and was a state representative. One of his sons, Elijah, worked as a furnituremaker in Georgia. Consists of a great number of accounts for the making of chests, looking glass frames, coffins, desks, tables, chairs, side boards, bedsteads, bureaus, etc. John Bradwell was probably a painter from England.
The dedication of the volume indicates that the Earl of Rochford was his patron. Manuscript contains descriptions of painting techniques with special emphasis on color. Topics include first painting or dead coloring, second painting, third or last painting, painting backgrounds, copying, painting drapery, and painting landscapes. Manuscript records a decade of dry goods retailing, including sales of looking glasses, lace, ribbon, necklaces, and shears. The partners imported goods from other countries, including furniture from John Stallwood, a London cabinetmaker.
Because of the large number of supplies on hand 66 sets of table legs and chair seats, for example , Branson may have produced furniture in an assembly-line fashion. Robert Breck and his son, Col. Breck, kept these daybooks to record the activities of their general store in Northampton, Massachusetts.
Volumes record the daily sales of the store, the entries containing names of customers, items they bought, and prices they paid. The Brecks sold much hardware, dry goods, and cutlery. Journal records the voyage that Breese made between Newport, Rhode Island, and the Isle of France, now Mauritius, transporting coffee, saltpeter, and flour.
He noted information on the details of navigation, encounters with other vessels, repairs to his ship, and progress loading and unloading.