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Visit Document. All martial arts belts Joint Special Operations Command Jordan - Wikipedia Joint Special Operations Command Special Supply Company; Training of officers and NCO to free martial arts and self-defense skills and styles used in this session to develop physical abilities of participants and hone their skills to be helpful to them in the implementation of the Class I: Students will be responsible for their own meals.
Class II Get Doc. For its part, the Russian funding bodies have continued to prioritise STEM subjects over the liberal arts, following a policy that mirrors most other countries. In the non-science areas of study, funding is more often directed towards internationally and internally sensitive issues that are often geared towards encouraging internal cohesion, nation building and so on, and in areas such as geopolitics, minority languages and religions; not surprising given that Russia is at once an old and a young country. The intellectual life of the country is heavily weighted in Moscow and St Petersburg, although there are attempts to ensure that other parts of the country are well funded, and there are wellrespected state universities elsewhere in the country, such as Novosibirsk and Vladivostok, as well as satellite campuses in the former Soviet republics, where Russia maintains considerable economic, cultural and linguistic influence.
The country also enjoys relations with many of the countries it now borders, and although these are historically weighted both positively and negatively, reflect a continued strong regional and cultural influence, where there are also large minority ethnic Russian populations. China has enjoyed a continued intellectual relationship with Russia, and there are frequent exchanges of students and professors alike, and Russian enjoys continued popularity in China, while Chinese is becoming a more popular language option.
Professor Tatiana Dobrosklonskaya of Moscow State University, and a Visiting Professor at Beijing International Studies University gave a presentation which looked at the relationship and an overview of educational and cultural exchange between the two countries. Professor Ljiljana Markovic, Dean of the Faculty of Philology at the University of Belgrade closed the symposium by speaking of the modernisation paradigms of education, and in a context of political instability, drawing attention to crises of identity, both individual and national.
She underlined that we must seek ways to collaborate, to work together, and that this is both a philosophical and practical commitment. These presentations will be recorded so please ensure that mobile phones are switched off or set to silent mode.
I will also offer a brief overview of significant critical studies that have recently emerged to retell the story of the cross-cultural encounter between East Asia and eighteenth-century British literature. Her research interests include Enlightenment ethics and aesthetics, the history of literary canon formation, and early modern cultural history; she is also interested in Asian literature in English, Asian American Literature, and Asian cultural production in general.
British Romanticism in China: Received, Revised, and Resurrected The reception history of British Romanticism in twentieth-century China unfolds a drama of vicissitude, corresponding to the tumultuous course of the Chinese national history and violently shifting literary politics. While all foreign literature, texts or trends, are reconfigured by its interaction with the national tradition, the afterlife of British Romanticism in China is distinguished by the radically divided and polarised responses it had received in the past century.
This paper considers British Romanticism from several of its key aspects, namely, radicalism, self-expressiveness, and naturalism, and examines how each of them had been treated with drastically contradictory stances in China along with the conflicting ideologies taking turns dominating the Chinese centre stage. It also discusses the significance of the intermediary of Japanese, German, and Soviet sources in the Chinese reception of British Romanticism, and being twice removed from the original might have contributed to the predominant emphasis on what is without instead of what is within British Romantic poetry.
Despite the consistently instrumentalist approach China had taken to British Romanticism, the paper concludes with the profound, though implicit, legacy British Romanticism had left in China. Almost all the leading modern Chinese poets who had participated in the formation of Chinese new vernacular poetry had been inspired in one way or another by their British fellow poets, who thereby inscribed their names on the Chinese poetic tradition. The remarkable tenacity of British Romanticism in surviving the trying circumstances in China derived, after all, from its power of poetry.
This program was a wide continuation of many previous cooperative bior trilateral programs focused on the relation within the Roman Empire and involving several countries in Europe and in Western Asia. All this previous research insisted on the fact that monetary unification, whatever the currency used, was always accompanied by economic unification. The purpose of the DAMIN program was to link a large group of academics all around the world and to try to analyse and understand the evolution of the monetary system in the 19th century.
At the beginning of the century, each country had its own monetary system and its own currency. But the general tendency was to unify the currency to facilitate the economic development and to facilitate trade, one of the necessities of the industrial revolution. Step by step, the main countries tried to develop multilateral treaties to facilitate means of payment, the most important of which was the Latin Monetary Union of December that made all the gold and silver coins issued by the signatory countries legal tender.
The subsequent discovery of the silver mines in the USA disturbed the LMU treaty and the countries were obliged to end the bimetallic system and to shift to the monometallic gold standard. The DAMIN program analysed these phenomena, and to date has seen more than 50 volumes published, hours of video footage, and conferences held all over the world. DAMIN has proved the necessity of large cooperative programs to link academics, as the only way to create the synergies necessary to analyse international economic trends and economic relations.
The two programs are already very similar in that they both wish to understand the development of long distance trade and its consequences on all the aspects of human life. Trade is not only trade of artefacts but with the merchants, came languages, religions, arts, philosophies, and technology, and following trade came armies and invaders. With the Mongols going West, the Italians going East, and myriad other movements between, the Silk Road Initiative offers a fantastic field of analysis and reflection on the development of human societies, and the impact of contacts between populations, civilisations and cultures.
He began his scientific career in the s studying coin finds and joined the CNRS in After his habilitation , he specialised in international cooperative programs that aim to reconsider monetary history in a global approach.
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Professor Depeyrot is the author or co-author of more than one hundred volumes, and is the founding director of the Moneta publishing house, the most important collection of books on the topic of money. The presentation will focus in particular on Fustat, the old Islamic city whose ruins now lie in the southern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt, and where an enormous number of fragments of Chinese ceramics were excavated. Dated from between the 10th to 18th centuries, it is fascinating to trace the many places through which the various vases and plates had passed, and to think about the thousands of miles they had traveled.
As part of a workshop provided by the Japanese calligraphy group Wa, conference attendees have the opportunity to gain knowledge and practical experience of the Japanese art of calligraphy through an informative demonstration. After the demonstration, delegates will have the opportunity to try their hand at calligraphy, and write their own names in Japanese.
In this chapter, Yamaguchi argues that the artists Kawanabe Kyosai and Tsukioka Yoshitoshi proved their mastery of Western art concepts such as perspective and realism by not utilizing such concepts. While Yamaguchi has noted that globalization may soon render nation-state identifications obsolete, in his book he nonetheless seeks to redefine the center of the art historical world as Japanese.
The widespread circulation of problematic paintings within the Indonesian art market is an increasingly prevalent issue that betrays trust, damages reputations and distorts collective cultural narratives, posing a threat to the long-term sustainability and credibility of the artists, their work and the international art market. Under the current Indonesian copyright laws, replicating a painting is not considered a crime of art forgery, rather a crime of autograph forgery, a loophole that has allowed the practice of forgery to thrive in the region with minimal legal repercussions.
Despite widespread claims of paintings lacking a secure provenance appearing in cultural collections over recent years, there has been little scholarly research to map the scope of counterfeit painting circulation within the market, or an appropriate framework in place to examine paintings of questionable authenticity. Building on this research gap and the themes of the conference, this presentation will provide a current understanding of art fraud in Indonesia based on research undertaken for my doctoral thesis Authentication, Attribution and the Art Market in Indonesia.
This research is interdisciplinary in its scope and is grounded in the art historical, socio-political and socio-economic context of cultural and artistic production in Indonesia, from the early twentieth century to the contemporary art world of today. By locating the study within a regionally relevant framework, this presentation aims to demonstrate how a conservation methodology for the authentication of paintings lacking a secure provenance will assist auction houses, collectors and institutions in the attribution process and work towards minimising counterfeit painting circulation within cultural collections in Indonesia and abroad.
This practice-based research looks into how environmental art can be effective in communicating environmental and cultural issues in the context of contemporary public art in Australia. Through examining artworks produced for public sculpture exhibitions and art festival commissions, this paper has a focus on the development of an environmental aesthetic, with particular reference to premodern Japanese aesthetics. Since its initial formation in the s, environmental art has been evaluated mainly for its extrinsic values.
While the prevailing instrumentalism has been not only valuable but inevitable in response to the urgency of climate change and environmental degradation, this approach could limit the potential of environmental art. This research aims to explore a number of intrinsic values such as the affective poetics of environmental art beyond its actual ecological benefits or its contribution to environmental activism, in combination with public accessibility.
This paper will also consider the possibility of slow cultural changes, in particular changes in attitude to nature through environmental art. The colonisation of nature, where nature is defined as matter to be exploited, is thought to have emerged from the Enlightenment principles of Cartesian dualism between human and nonhuman worlds. On the other hand, many indigenous cosmologies offer ecological wisdom which allows people to live in environmentally sensitive ways.
Similarly, environmental aesthetics and cosmology in Japanese traditional art forms such as Ikebana may offer alternative perspectives in considering strategies for sustainability. Cultural elements are always the focus of translation regardless of the texts. Amongst existing theories, functional and text-type theories have been particularly popular in translation in the modern context Vermeer, ; Reiss, , such approach largely lays the translation focus on the reader, purpose and function. Despite the fact that commercial texts call upon the reader, functional theories will not advise ignoring cultural elements in the process of translation.
However, it seems to be a norm for the Ocean Park, a major theme park in Hong Kong, to normalise cultural elements in its promotional texts. This paper will examine content of newsletter issued by the Ocean Park during the Chinese New Year, on the basis of functional translation theory how Chinese New Year elements were normalised in the English version will be discussed.
The correlations between the source text Chinese , the target text reader non-Chinese locals and tourists who can read English and the communicative purpose will be explored. The artworks do not only express personal emotions and reveal the vanishing community histories but also build new trajectories to connect others of different generations in Hong Kong.
His works mix moving image, performance, and collection of found objects to question the notion of home and community, express his strong emotions and struggles to history through the studies and representation of the everyday-life-ness of his family, death of his grandfather and collective village events of the indigenous cultural tradition. As a teaching muralist for almost two decades, Prof.
Kong Ho explores his community mural experience in Hong Kong in the perspective of art tourism and cultural reinvention. Ho intents to apply his recent conducted mural tour experience for the Whittier College in Hong Kong as a case study to offer a first-hand understanding of the impact of community murals in art tourism and cultural development in Hong Kong. Only a few community murals created in Hong Kong during that time. The public estate and school mural projects launched by HKMS from to exemplify community-based art practices in Hong Kong.
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The one-and-a-half day mural tour for Whittier College set an example of the value of art and culture, which serves as a meeting zone of art tourism in Hong Kong. The mural tour has visited 7 estate and school murals, completed from to , in Hong Kong. This paper explores how these almost 20 year-old community murals reinvent their art and cultural values in term of current innovative art tourism in Hong Kong. Ho's insights into community art and the meaning of cultural and creative industry are unique because he presents them as academic research through his practical experience.
The aim of this research is meant to highlight the value of community murals in the Asian society. For a long time Westerners were attracted to the Far East by a romantic vision of the Orient. Hong Kong was a divided city, with a small British contingent overseeing a large Chinese society. The essay treats tourism images as cultural relics and social statements, which transmitted disturbing messages about relationships of social power, through a compositional device called visual positional superiority.
The writing of maritime history in Indonesia has become an interesting study for scholars. Maritime history can not be separated from the history of Indonesia, because the Indonesian territory developed from the maritime sectors. This paper examines the development of maritime historiography in Indonesia in the theory and methodology perspectives which are then linked up with issues that evolve in methodological aspects.
Based on the results of literature studies show that the maritime historiography today in Indonesia is still far behind with other historical writings which are various in methodologies. There are several facts that are found, firstly, the lack of local historians who wrote maritime history after the great work of maritime historian Indonesia, A. Lapian in Secondly, the limited local sources and dominant colonial sources also influenced the interpretation results in the maritime history which tended to be colonial-centric so that override local sources.
Lastly, that so far, the study of sociocultural contemporary aspects especially cultural anthropology approach in Indonesian maritime historiography is also rarely done, so that social aspects in maritime world tends to be opaque and more dominated by economic aspects, trades, politics, and so on. These problems are certainly a challenge for scholars to provide the development of maritime history in Indonesia, especially reconstructing historical facts, re-analyzing historical sources, and enriching the Indonesian maritime historiography among the other historical writings.
Can a government ultimately require or legislate beauty? There is a long, documented history of garden design as a form of personal artistic expression held in high esteem in Asia, particularly in China and Japan. How does this idea of personal expression, in the form of individual garden design, fare in the tightly controlled and regulated environment of the multi-racial city-state of Singapore?
Are there best practices that may be shared? Scott and Storper, , p. Asia and the Orient has long been a stomping ground for colonials and novelists in the Western imaginary, but recent 21st century Anglophone novelists have begun to portray the continent as a land of opportunity for other Asians. While the Asian mega-city in Anglophone fiction has often been viewed as a site for futuristic projections, or as a backdrop for continuing East-West exchanges, I argue that recent literature has sought to recreate a more decentered narrative universe of global cultural and economic flows, albeit one that simultaneously marks the centrality and rise of the Asian mega-city.
The twentieth century was a century of global powers: the Soviet Union, the United States. Now China is on the rise. Where do these superpowers and major language groups leave small countries and their identities? Whether we are ready for it or not, humanity is shifting away from tribal identities towards a global identity that is yet to be defined. This process began with massive shifts of refugees during World War II and continues today with refugees internationally displaced by economic deprivation, environmental disasters, and war.
As population shifts continue, humanity has no other option but to adapt. These processes are reflected in contemporary global literature. A life straddling two or more cultures and languages becomes second nature to those born into an ethnic diaspora. The children and grandchildren of refugees learn from a young age to hold two or three cultural perspectives and languages in balance.
Writers who emerge from these diasporas have a unique perspective. In American literature several generations of descendants of Lithuanian war refugees have emerged who write in English about their nation's experience. Most notable is Ruta Sepetys, whose novel, Between Shades of Gray, has been published in 41 countries and translated into 23 languages, including Japanese and Chinese. This paper will examine how the literature of one nation's diaspora fits within the context of global literature.
How is the microcosm in the macrocosm? On one hand, the paper is an analysis of the Asian communities that had settled in South Africa from the Colonial period into the Apartheid regime. On another, it is a personal exploration of the current Asian South African identity. The paper comments on the reconstruction of the Asian Identity which seems to be eroding with the new generational shift and decolonised space that the country finds itself in.
The sole focus of this paper is that of memory and identity preservation through collected photographs pre of the last authentic groups of Asian communities my grandparents and those in the generation who had been born and lived through apartheid and racial segregation. It unpacks what the future of the recentred Asian identity will be in terms of the generation that has now been plagued by technological shifts and globalisation.
It begs the following questions: is there an artistic space for the NEW Asian community in South Africa, myself included, which offers a method of identity shift and historical reclamation? This paper posits that migrant cultures are part of a continuous process that disrupt nationalist formation. Drawing from the narratives of Filipino-American writers such as Jessica Hagedorn, Han Ong and Mia Alvar, I argue that their writings can provide a deeper understanding of how categories of identity are managed in order to expose the continuous history of imperial dominance.
These narratives offer an image of belonging that is neither static nor essential but always in flux. The narratives, in effect, become contact zones that establish hybrid spaces allowing some categories to be assimilated while leaving others unassimilable.
Arabic is one of the most influential languages on the development of Indonesian and Malay. However, the Arabic language has linguistic characteristics which are much different from the Indonesian and Malay which require many adjustments. Pronunciation adjustments follow the rules of articulation, while the written forms require orthography adjustments in this case with regard to the language policy. This research focuses on spelling forms of standard Arabic loanwords in Indonesian and Malay associated with spelling system and articulation adjustments.
There are some loanwords which are not in accordance with the orthography guide adjustments so that spelling variations of standard Arabic loanwords appear. Some variations are connected to orthography guide adjustments including the development of the guides and the others are connected to the way of articulation. Some words, however, are viewed in non-neutral usage related to gender perspectives.
It motivates the writer to conduct a study concerning gender-biased words found in Bahasa Indonesia. The current study aims to describe the forms of gender-biased words found in Bahasa Indonesia and the social aspects underlying such bias in society. It was analyzed using descriptive-qualitative method in triangulation among data, method, and technique.
The data were obtained from Indonesian words containing suffixes —wan, —wati, and —man by using observational method from Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia Fifth Edition, and categorizing the words based on the three suffixes. Name and Process Model was used to analyze the data in words of morphological approach and elaborate them to get the social aspects in words of Sociolinguistics approach.
The result confirmed that there are gender-biased words found in Bahasa Indonesia which can be classified into two categories: masculine and feminine words as shown by the three suffixes. The masculine words are commonly used by both women and men neutral , while feminine words are only used by women exclusive. It shows the tendency which places masculine words in superior position, while feminine words are placed in inferior position. Therefore, patriarchal cultures existing in Indonesian society from New Order to Reformation has generated the primary power of male in roles of Indonesian language structure.
As the part of Austronesian languages, this language has to reflex the features of the family. One of them in is the presence of infix —um- in the language. The data later analyzed using introspection technique by entering the infix to the verb as the researcher is the speaker of the language and triangulation technique by asking other speakers and comparing to previous research.
Those allomorphs are also found in other language in sub group like in Muna language and Wakatobi language even though in different numbers. Moreover, in the family of Austronesia, Ciacia language is more reflecting itself as the part of WMP group by showing the inchoative verb form rather than Philippines-types group that marks actor voice of the infix.
This research examines the language variation of Pendalungan Jember through describing the structure of language and regional accent which show characteristics of Pendalungan people. Data obtained from public places and social media instagram to be observated, interpreted, and classified according to the language variations. According to the data, Pendalungan language variations contain: a lexical variations; b systemic morphological interferences; c code-mixing; and d Madurese identical accent. It can be identified from intonations and lexicon uses. These findings show popular words which are used in daily conversation of Pendalungan people.
It is because the data obtained from instagram which use natural utterance like everyday conversation. The regional accent of Pendalungan is necessary to be examined in depth, so that the next researchers can develop this research with a dialectology approach. It intended to emphasize the role of empowerment through arts enabling expression and transformation. The produced data, intended to challenge the full process of seeing affected by inner contents and transferred to many other contexts in metaphoric relations from imagined and memorized issues.
Visualized contents carry subjective issues that may cause internal or external conflicts interfering with the individual living and consequently becomes subject to security. Different cultures and different beliefs need different approaches. Re-thinking educational models about the importance of visual literacy, visual language, and visual perception might increase the levels of experiences and it can help people to ground and protect themselves from visual vulnerabilities Sousanis, This paper examines the Indonesia-Japan bilateral relations that have been constantly strong for the the past 60 years, especially on economic aspect.
The paper derives largely from the discussions, debates and empirical findings on how both countries exercise their interests and policies to deal with such bilateral cooperation that mutually beneficial for both. It is found that Indonesia-Japan strong ties have been shaped by varying factors: bilateral interdependence, democratization and perception. In this regard, the trauma of political dispute during World War II has forced them to restrain from political issues. Indonesia has eased its perspective and position toward Japan. This political option is believed due to Japanese willingness to assist Indonesian development, and the absence of controversial issues such as borderline, human right, or property right dispute, that can trigger both countries to enhance diplomatic tension.
Considering its national interests, Indonesia tends to behave pragmatically in terms of economic relations. Roads are singularly one of the most vital infrastructure a community can have. In this Swinburne Social-Innovation Project, we explore this enthusiasm for roads by addressing them in terms of the capacity of the physical-socio auto mobility, rural development and telecommunication access focusing on remote indigenous communities in Central Sarawak.
In the absence of rural public transport infrastructure and patchy telecommunication services, the team is looking into how remote community members coordinate the sharing of private transportation for their socioeconomic purposes and their reliance on the access that is provided by timber concessionaires for the past 22 years. Before the logging road, it would take days or even up to a month for the communities in a remote area to get to the nearest town by longboat.
As not everyone can afford to own a pickup truck, the communities have developed their own transport sharing system. This form of informal sharing system is not only unique to any communities in Sarawak, but is also predominantly available in other urban and remote populations of both developed and developing nations. A bridge, by definition, is a conduit from one side to the other.
This article examines the changing roles of a Japanese built aqueduct over a river, which is vulnerable to floods in Meinong, Taiwan, from an irrigation structure to a nostalgic attachment. Through historical and political enquiry, the article aims to demonstrate that the euphoric assertion of the Meinong bridge was a process flourished within popular culture and human imagination, a process that has gone through for over a century. Understanding the Filipino migration gives us the idea that leaving is part of our realities.
We move from one place to another, from city to city, and from country to country to find greener pastures. We are a people who love our families very much that despite being away from loved ones we would persevere and endure just to give our families back home the economic gain and stability that they need. In the course of incorporation to the host society, Filipinos encounter internal and external conflicts. We find ways in order to combat these conflicts.
And one way of doing so is our active engagement to online communities. These online communities have become the imaginary homeland of Filipinos abroad. In this paper, I will focus on the interface of these online communities and social capital, and how this phenomenon becomes one critical factors in Filipinos survival in the host society. I propose a framework in order to make sense the connections of migration, the Internet, and social capital. It is hoped that through this framework, a better understanding of the intersection of these concepts could be learnt and determined.
Internet penetration rates have saturated Asia over the past decade. Thai and Chinese rates have risen to It is thus unsurprising that internet and gaming addiction studies are mounting in these two both countries. That said there is a dearth of scholarship about the awareness that students in Asia from the field of humanities have about gaming addiction and its influence on their learning in the classroom and academic performance.
This paper will examine how undergraduate students in Asia from the humanities compare with those from other disciplines in respect to their attitudes to and awareness of gaming addiction. A sample of between 30 and 50 students from international and private Asian universities will be surveyed using a series of questions related to gaming addiction. A Likert scale will be used alongside open-response questions and a mixed method to interpret these results. It is expected that humanities undergraduates will respond differently due to their distinct skill sets and their awareness about gaming addiction and its influence on their learning will be markedly different to students from other disciplines.
This research will re-center the humanities in Asia as a space for generating new ideas about education in response to gaming addiction. Intercultural communication can occur in many contexts, one of them is in the educational context. There is a Korean international school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Not only Korean people work in this school, but also Indonesians.
This Korean international school employs Indonesian teachers to teach in English. That is why there are three languages in this school: Korean, English and Indonesian. But the official languages are only Korean and English. These language differences might bring barriers in interacting. This research is using a qualitative method with Communication Accommodation Theory.
In collecting data, the researcher uses a literature review and indepth interview with three Indonesian teachers. The focus of this research is on the use of language by Indonesian teachers as their strategy to adapt in this school. The results of the research show that the informants more often diverge toward Korean while at school and sometimes they converge to simple Korean words in some special cases.
Moreover, based on the data, there is a tendency of the informants to over-accommodate as generally, Koreans like to humiliate Indonesians because Koreans especially Korean teachers often speak Korean no matter the situation. The development of digital media and technology has become an important influence. Since the global increase in the use and popularity of social networking sites, many researches focus on the user attitude and adoption intention.
As users rely more and more on social networks to become part of social life, concerns about the information privacy can create obstacles to the use of social networks. The objective of this study was to examine if privacy abuse concern and perceived risk prevent the trust and enjoyment of social networking sites to make online shopping. The participants are college students aged between 18 to 24 years old form different majors. The results show that privacy abuse concern affected both perceived risk and enjoyment when using social networking sites to get information or make decision to shopping, but the results does not support privacy abuse concern affected trust.
Enjoyment is the key factor that motivation to affect online shopping. Trust is the least important factor in the research model for college students. This proposal aims at analysing how Western — and global — systems of thought tend to understand bodies, affects, genders and sexualities. In broad terms, they are understood as a system with a close connection among the terms and in dichotomic and binary ways. Binarism favours hierarchies that rely on and produce centers normative, heterosexual, standard genders and sexualities and peripheries non-normative nor hegemonic sex-gender configurations.
Among some of the peripheral configurations we can find formulas such as living apart together, polyamorous configurations and emergent genders and sexualities kink, asexual, pansexual, genderfluid, herbivorous men, etc. As part of a research project based on the possibilities of posthumanism for understanding contemporary genders and postgenders, this proposal wants to explore how we can better understand and unveil the dynamics of power and hierarchies between centers and peripheries if we use posthumanism.
We propose to move the questions from what bodies, genders and affects are to the Deleuzian question on what bodies, genders and affects can do. This decentering elludes identity-based analysis and escapes essentialist and naturalized positions and can help us understand the possibilities of posthumanism for understanding the dynamic and changing hegemonies of bodies, genders and affects. A posthumanist gaze on new configurations of bodies, affects, genders and sexualities Braidotti, Haraway, Ferrando can help us analyse these issues from an organic and rhyzomatic view that implies a new perspective on centers and peripheries, and maybe points at the possibility of their disappearance.
The year marked the success of language revival movements in Taiwan, with Hakka and Aborigines languages made into national languages. Both images work together to create this ethnic group as simultaneously dominant, domineering, uncivil, vulgar, castrated, and dependent. As such, they become the placeholder for misdirected ethnic, gender, and class and national resentments. East Asia Vietnam , is the largest market for rhino horns. By weight, rhino horns cost as much as gold on the black market. People consume them, believing the dust has therapeutic properties; the horns are made of the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails.
The collective noun for a group of rhinoceroses is herd; the name has been in use since the 14th century. The family Rhinocerotidae consists of only four extant genera: Ceratotherium , Diceros and Rhinoceros; the living species fall into three categories. The two African species, the white rhinoceros and the black rhinoceros, belong to the tribe Dicerotini, which originated in the middle Miocene , about The species diverged during the early Pliocene. The main difference between black and white rhinos is the shape of their mouths — white rhinos have broad flat lips for grazing, whereas black rhinos have long pointed lips for eating foliage.
There are two living Rhinocerotini species, the Indian rhinoceros and the Javan rhinoceros, which diverged from one another about 10 million years ago; the Sumatran rhinoceros is the only surviving representative of the most primitive group, the Dicerorhinini, which emerged in the Miocene.
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Interspecific hybridisation of black and white rhinoceros has been confirmed. While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes, all other rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes. However, chromosomal polymorphism might lead to varying chromosome counts. For instance, in a study there were three northern white rhinoceroses with 81 chromosomes.
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There are two subspecies of white rhinoceros: the southern white rhinoceros and the northern white rhinoceros. As of , the southern subspecies has a wild population of 20, — making them the most abundant rhino subspecies in the world. However, the northern subspecies is critically endangered, with all, known to remain being two captive females.
There is no conclusive explanation of the name "white rhinoceros". A popular idea that "white" is a distortion of either the Afrikaans word wyd or the Dutch word wijd , meaning "wide" and referring to the rhino's square lips, is not supported by linguistic studies; the white rhino has a short neck and broad chest. Females weigh males 2, kg; the head-and-body length is 3.
On its snout it has two horns; the front horn is larger than averages 90 cm in length and can reach cm. The white rhinoceros has a prominent muscular hump that supports its large head; the colour of this animal can range from yellowish brown to slate grey. Most of its body hair is found on the ear fringes and tail bristles, with the rest distributed rather sparsely over the rest of the body. White rhinos have the distinctive flat broad mouth, used for grazing.
The name "black rhinoceros" was chosen to distinguish this species from the white rhinoceros; this can be confusing, as the two species are not distinguishable by color. There are four subspecies of black rhino: South-central, the most numerous, which once ranged from central Tanzania south through Zambia and Mozambique to northern and eastern South Africa. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Thaing.
Main article: Muay Lao. Main article: Tomoi. Main articles: Muay Boran and Krabi krabong. Further information: Muay Thai. Main article: Vietnamese martial arts. USA Today. Retrieved Martial arts. List of styles History Timeline Hard and soft. Professional boxing Professional kickboxing Knockdown karate Mixed martial arts Pankration Submission wrestling.
Portal Outline. Categories : Southeast Asian martial arts. Hidden categories: Articles containing Burmese-language text Articles containing Thai-language text. Revision History. Related Images. YouTube Videos. The martial art of boxing was practiced in ancient Thera. Detail of the wrestling fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan. Mughal warriors practicing horseback archery, a skill they were highly renowned for. Statue of Shivaji , the warrior-king who brought the Maratha people and fighting style to prominence. Kickboxing is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate mixed with boxing.
Kickboxing is practiced for self-defence, general fitness, or as a contact sport. Tatsuo Yamada left and his master, Choki Motobu right. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. Pagoda s and kyaung s in present-day Bagan , the capital of the Pagan Kingdom. British troops firing a mortar on the Mawchi road, July Bando is sometimes mistakenly used as a generic word for all Burmese martial arts, but it is only one martial art; Burmese fighting systems collectively are referred to as Thaing.
Lethwei or Burmese bareknuckle boxing is a full contact combat sport from Myanmar that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Banshay is a weapon-based martial art from Myanmar focusing primarily on the sword, staff and spear. In Khmer, pradal means fighting or boxing and serey means free. Thus, pradal serey may be translated as "free fighting".
A scene depicting blocking a kick on a bas-relief from the Angkor region. Khmer traditional wrestling is a folk wrestling style from Cambodia. It has been practiced as far back as the Angkor period and is depicted on the bas-reliefs of certain temples. The earliest form of Khmer traditional wrestling was called Maloyuth.
Image: Khmer bas relief of rear naked choke. Glazed stoneware dating back to the 12th century. Khmer army going to war against the Cham , from a relief on the Bayon. Angkor Wat. Faces of Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara at Prasat Bayon. Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos. A statue of Fa Ngum , founder of the Lan Xang kingdom. Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane , Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang. Vientiane is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand. Buddha sculptures at Pha That Luang.
Sports in Malaysia are an important part of Malaysian culture. Sports in Malaysia are popular from both the participation and spectating aspect. Malaysians from different walks of life join in a wide variety of sports for recreation as well as for competition. Lee Chong Wei. Nicol David. A Famosa is a fort in Melaka built by the Portuguese in the 16th century. The Parliament of Malaysia , the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat. Kedah, also known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace", is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia.
Menara Alor Setar is the tallest tower in Kedah. Krabi-Krabong is a weapon-based martial art from Thailand.
It is closely related to other Southeast Asian fighting styles such as Malay silat, Burmese banshay and Cambodian kbach kun boran. Krabi-krabong practitioners with Daab swords. Krabi-krabong practitioners with Krabong and Mai sok san. Krabi-krabong practitioner with Daab song mue, double swords. Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Painting by Johannes Vingboons of Ayutthaya, c. Coronation of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species. The white rhinoceros is actually grey. The black rhinoceros has a beak shaped lip and is similar in color to the white rhinoceros. Depiction of fighting Cham naval soldier against the Khmer, stone relief at the Bayon.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a generally centrist audience. This February 5, issue of USA Today shows the old layout and logo of the paper prior to its redesign. Kbach kun boran Khmer is a Khmer term literally meaning "Cambodian ancient fighting art". It is typically used today as an umbrella term for the native pre-modern fighting arts of Cambodia.
Pankratiast in fighting stance, Ancient Greek red-figure amphora, BC. Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. Depiction of fighting monks demonstrating their skills to visiting dignitaries early 19th-century mural in the Shaolin Monastery. The Yang style of taijiquan being practiced on the Bund in Shanghai.