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He was wounded in the fight, missing the Virginia's momentous fight with the Monitor the very next day. Lee's surrender to the Union Army at Appomattox Court House a village in Lee made his farewell address to his men. Lee's general order to cease fighting and return home is poignant in its simplicity and gratitude for the efforts of those who fought and sacrificed for the cause of the South and for himself. Transcribed by a clerk at the Headquarters of the Army of Northern Virginia, twelve original copies were made to be sent to Lee's regiments, with an additional copy given to the clerk.

Immediately the order began being duplicated with versions disseminating across the country. This is one of those copies, Some of these, such as the Order No. The actor-turned-murderer hailed from Maryland, a fact sometimes overlooked when recalling his crime.

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The dramatic manhunt that took place in the wake of that evening at Ford's Theater tracked Booth through the state and into Virginia where he was killed on April 26, The collection, on permanent deposit, pulls together several pieces of memorabilia relating to this Maryland family, including letters from Mary Ann Booth to her son John Wilkes Booth and notes. Despite dying a murderer, Booth remained beloved in the minds of his mother and particularly his sister, Asia. This scrap of wallpaper attests to their lingering obsession with a family member who became one of American history's most despised men.

The secessionist sentiments that inspired the riot made the divisions within Maryland profoundly evident. President Lincoln took action to keep Maryland in the Union, rescinding the writ of habeas corpus, one of the legal safeguards against unjustified imprisonment. In addition, he placed Maryland under martial law. Individuals under any suspicion of loyalty to the Confederate cause were arrested and placed in Fort McHenry and other northern prisons.

Houses were searched for Confederate materials, weapons, and any other evidence of actions against the Union. In this cartoon, Volck depicts a nighttime "raid" by Federal troops on a Baltimore residence. The women of the house huddle together in their shifts while an older gentleman is menaced by two Union soldiers. Two Confederate flags, the famous "stars and bars" are found, revealing the family's true loyalties. These "unlawful" searches, seizures, and imprisonments outraged citizens such as Volck, whose defiance of the Union cause was further strengthened by this type of event.

A staunch, almost militant supporter of the Confederacy, Volck used the pseudonym "V. Blada" and is said to have been a smuggler for the Confederacy as well as a courier for Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America. This image depicts the newly-elected president skulking through Baltimore on his way from Springfield to Washington, afraid of a rumored mob attack on his train. Lincoln's election had resulted in Democrats assaulting Republicans in the city's streets.

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Attorney Directory Business Politics Sports. Home Directory. Editors' Picks Readers' Poll Party. Connect with us Shape Created with Sketch. There were rumors of an extensive plot to assassinate him when he passed through Baltimore. Lincoln reluctantly agreed to go from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, to Washington, via Philadelphia and Baltimore, in secrecy and with considerable security undertaken by the railroad. Accompanied by Lamon and Pinkerton, Lincoln left Harrisburg after dinner on February 22, on a special train to Philadelphia.

There they connected with the Baltimore train late that evening, arriving in Baltimore about 4 a. The manner of Lincoln's arrival was ridiculed by his enemies and criticized by many friends. According to Lamon, Lincoln soon regretted the midnight journey to Washington as unworthy of the leader of a great republic. But Lincoln's advisers, like Lamon, believed the plot to assassinate him was genuine and that his life was endangered from the moment he crossed the Maryland line.

February 23, - The Peace Conference reports to Congress six proposed constitutional amendments but none are accepted. House of Representatives votes down one proposal after another. The Crittenden Compromise finally dies. February 27, - Davis Appoints Peace Commissioners. Roman to negotiate with the Federal government. All requests for an unofficial interview with Sec. Seward are declined. March 2, - Morrill Tarriff Act of The Morrill Tariff of was a major protectionist tariff bill instituted in the United States.

The act is informally named after its sponsor, Rep. Justin Morrill of Vermont, who designed the bill around recommendations by economist Henry C. The tax is significant for severely altering American commercial policy after a period of relative free trade to several decades of heavy protection. It replaced the Tariff of The Morrill Tariff is also remembered as a contentious issue that fueled sectional disputes on the eve of the American Civil War. The immediate effect of the Morrill Tariff was to more than double the tax collected on most dutiable items entering the United States.

The act passed the United States House of Representatives by a strictly sectional vote during the first session of the 36th Congress on May 10, Virtually all of the northern representatives supported it and southern representatives opposed it. Hunter of Virginia, a free trade advocate, employed parliamentary tactics to delay the vote until the second session after recess. This second session did not meet until after the election, so the move guaranteed that the tax issue would come up during the campaigns that fall.

A large majority of Southerners opposed the tax increase because it hurt them financially and campaigned against it though protective tariffs could benefit Louisiana's sugar plantation owners from Caribbean imports. Unlike the north where manufacturers benefited from protection, the south had few manufacturing industries. Most of the southern economy depended on the export of crops like cotton and tobacco, which were hurt on the world scene by policies that adversely impacted international trade.

Returning in December, after the election, the Senate again took up the Morrill bill and intensely debated it for the next several months. On February 14, the new President-elect Abraham Lincoln publicly announced that he would make a new tariff his priority if the bill did not pass by inauguration day on March 4: "According to my political education, I am inclined to believe that the people in the various sections of the country should have their own views carried out through their representatives in Congress, and if the consideration of the Tariff bill should be postponed until the next session of the National Legislature, no subject should engage your representatives more closely than that of a tariff.

The vote was again on sectional lines and came at the height of the secession crisis, but many southern senators had already resigned their seats to side with their states somewhat ironically, thus ensuring easy passage. It was one of the last bills signed by outgoing Democratic president, James Buchanan of Pennsylvania.

The main purpose of the Morrill Tariff's high rates was the protection of industrial manufacturing, located mostly in the northeast, from foreign competitor products. Due to the penalties it imposed on foreign traded goods the act formented hostility and condemnation of the United States from abroad. Anger over the new American tariff caused many British commentators and politicians to express sympathy for the new Confederate States of America over the north.

Civil War Timeline: 1863

The high rates probably also contributed to the rapid decline in British exports to the United States in the early summer of Congress passes a joint resolution amending the Constitution that would protect slavery where it existed, and that protection would be beyond amendment by Congress. The text of the resolution read: :"No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State.

The Senate rejects another attempt by John J. Crittenden , this one to adopt, as a constitutional amendment, the result of the Peace Convention. This was Crittenden's last attempt at compromise. March 2, - Dakota and Nevada Territories Created. By early hundreds of settlers had migrated to the region of the Dakota, establishing communities in what is now South Dakota at Vermillion, Yankton, and Bon Homme, and occupying farms in the surrounding lands.

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In the creation of the Wyoming Territory established the western boundary of the Dakotas. The southern boundary was fixed in The Nevada Territory was an organized territory of the United States from March 2, until October 31, , when it became Nevada, the 36th state. Prior to its designation as a territory, the area was part of western Utah Territory and was known as Washoe, after the native Washoe people. Despite the silver wealth of Nevada, and the ever-increasing population of miners that came to exploit it, Nevada was not quite populous enough to warrant statehood, but the Union's need for silver and the generally anti-slavery bent of its people trumped the population problem and led to statehood.

The territorial capital was Carson City; James Warren Nye was the first and only territorial governor. March 4, - Inauguration of Lincoln. Special Senate Session of 37th Congress convenes. At his inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln attempted to avoid conflict by announcing that he had no intention "to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.

You can have no conflict without yourselves being the aggressors. March - Missouri Declares Neutrality. Louis, under the presidency of Sterling "Pap" Price , to consider the secession of the State of Missouri from the Union. On March 5 a military bill, giving the Governor sweeping military empowerment is proposed, but it is rejected by the Missouri legislature at Jefferson City. Louis issued its report that in a "military aspect secession and connection with a Southern Confederacy is annihilation for Missouri. Frank P. Blair requests that Capt.

Nathaniel Lyon take command of the troops at the St. Louis Arsenal. On March 21 the Missouri State Convention adjourns after voting against Secession, stating "no adequate cause [existed] to impel Missouri to dissolve her connections with the Federal Union. Missouri attempts neutrality but the Federal invasion in May pushed many Unionists into the Confederate camp.

As in Kentucky, pro-Union and pro-Confederate governments were established, the latter run in exile by Governor Claiborne F. Missouri became a Confederate state in November Its thriving prewar economy was devastated and its people terrorized by brutal guerrilla warfare. March - Flags of the Confederacy. It caused confusion on the battlefield because it was so similar to the Stars and Stripes of the Union forces.

The second national flag of the Confederacy was "The Stainless Banner," which was put into service on May 1, To avoid battlefield confusion between the Stars and Bars with the Union's Stars and Stripes, this new flag was designed with the battle flag placed in the first quarter. This flag, however, had its own problem: when the battlefield was windless, it was sometimes mistaken for a flag of surrender because all that could be seen was the field of white.

The "Battle Flag" of the Confederacy is square, of various sizes for the different branches of the service: 48 inches square for the infantry, 36 inches for the artillery, and 30 inches for the cavalry. It was used in battle from November to the fall of the Confederacy. The blue color on the Southern Cross in the battle flag was navy blue, as opposed to the much lighter blue of the Naval Jack. The Stars and Bars were too easily confused in the smoke of battle with the Stars and Stripes, resulting in very real military mistakes.

To remedy this, General Pierre G. Beauregard of the Army of Virginia and others sought a better design and Beauregard was the first to adopt the flag from the design of William Porcher Miles. Miles' rectangular design was sized down to a square to aid folding and carrying in battle. The flag is also known by historians as the flag of the Army of Northern Virginia.

This flag proved so popular, that it became basis for the Second National flag of the Confederacy see above. Some prefer the square proportions of this flag over Mile's original rectangle as more sonorous and more distinct. Abraham Lincoln and his cabinet meet many times to discuss the situation at Fort Sumter. The final decision to re-inforce the fort is taken on April 4. It was almost identical to the United States constitution, with a few differences: 1 In the preamble, it omitted the general welfare clause, and added that each ratifying state was acting "in its sovereign and independent character.

The delegates chose a provisional cabinet, and sent comissioners to the secession conventions in the Upper South. They hoped to present a moderate image, in order to convince the remaining slaveholding states to join them. The Arkansas secession convention votes 39 to 35 against secession, but then votes unanimously to put the secession question before the people of the state in an August referendum.

Beauregard that Fort Sumter should be reduced before the relief fleet arrives. Beauregard to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter, under threat of bombardment. The Sumter relief fleet begins to leave New York harbor. April 11, - Gen. Pierre G. Beauregard demands the evacuation of Fort Sumter p. Major Robert Anderson refuses, but adds, "if you do not batter us to pieces we will be starved out in a few days.

Beauregard is instructed: "If Major Anderson will state the time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that in the mean time he will not use his guns against us unless ours should be employed against Fort Sumter," then Fort Sumter should not be bombarded p. April 12, - Attack on Fort Sumter. At a. General Pierre G. Beauregard asks Major Robert Anderson if he can comply with the demands of the Confederate government. Anderson offers to evacuate on April 15 at noon, but declines to promise not to use his guns in support of any operations under the United States flag.

This is considered unsatisfactory a. Anderson is informed that the Confederates will open fire in one hour. Edmund Ruffin , a fiery Virginia secessionist, is often credited with firing the first shot. Despite this legend, the signal shot probably came from Capt. George James's post at Fort Johnson. Ruffin fired from the battery on Cummings Point, and the sequence of firing orders called for this battery to fire after James's. Major Robert Anderson's 84 men in Fort Sumter rotated in firing the fort's 48 guns, assisted by 43 workmen. Sumter's garrison ignored the initial hail of cannonballs and shells until after breakfast, a repast that took several hours and produced a silence that thoroughly baffled the Rebels.

Abner Doubleday then fired the Union's first defensive shot, aiming at Cummings Point. No one was killed, and only a few were injured, by falling bricks. In the pomp-and-circumstance surrender ceremony, a gun salute was delivered. On the 50th reloading, a spark accidentally touched off a premature explosion, killing Federal Private Daniel Hough and mortally wounding Private Edward Galloway, the first deaths of the war. The hot embers fell on the cartridges stacked below, exploding these as well, injuring 4 other men Privates George Fielding, John Irwin, George Pinchard, and James Hayes.

These were the only casualties of the crisis. Sumter would have fallen anyway, having nothing to eat except salt pork. But Southern politicians, fearful that the new Confederacy would splinter "unless you sprinkle blood in the face of the people," ordered that first shot to be fired. In Washington, President Abraham Lincoln issues a proclamation announcing an "insurrection," and calls for 75, troops to be raised from the militia of the several States of the Union to serve for three months.

Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee refuse to send troops and soon join the Confederacy. Kentucky and Missouri were also unwilling to supply men for the Union Army but decide not to take sides in the conflict. Lincoln summons Congress to meet on July 4. The debates continued until April 15, when Richmond newspapers reported Lincoln's call for 75, troops to suppress the uprising.

As a member of the Union, Virginia would be required to send 8, soldiers. This proved to be the breaking point for delegates, and the convention chose to stand with other southerners and vote for secession. On April 16, the delegates met in secrecy and passed the Ordinance of Secession the next day. The citizens of Virginia ratified the ordinance on May Virginia is the eighth state to secede, followed within five weeks by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, thus forming an eleven state Confederacy with a population of 9 million, including nearly 4 million slaves.

The Union will soon have 21 states and a population of over 20 million. April 19, - Proclamation of Blockade President Abraham Lincoln issues a blockage proclamation against Southern ports. Scott did not believe that a quick victory was possible for Federal forces. He devised a long-term plan to defeat the Confederacy by occupying key terrain, such as the Mississippi River and key ports on the Atlantic Coast and the Gulf of Mexico, then moving on Atlanta.

This Anaconda Plan was derided in the press; however, it was the strategy the Union actually used in its broad outlines, particularly in the Western Theater and in the successful naval blockade of Confederate ports. Scott believed if the plan was executed early the South would negotiate a peace deal.

However, at the start of the war, the U. Navy had only a small number of ships and was in no position to guard all 3, miles of Southern coast. For the duration of the war the blockade limits the ability of the rural South to stay well supplied in its war against the industrialized North. April 19, - Riot in Baltimore. A clash between pro-South civilians and Union troops in Maryland's largest city resulted in what is commonly accepted to be the first bloodshed of the Civil War.

Secessionist sympathy was strong in Baltimore, a border state metropolis. Before his inauguration, rumors in the city of an assassination plot against Abraham Lincoln, who was on his way to Washington, D. Anti-Union sentiments there only increased once the hostilities commenced at Fort Sumter on April A week later, one of the first regiments to respond to Lincoln's call for troops arrived in Baltimore by train, en route to the capital. Because the rail line did not pass through the city, horse drawn cars had to take the Massachusetts infantrymen from one end of Baltimore to the other.

An angry crowd of secessionists tried to keep the regiment from reaching Washington, blocking several of the transports, breaking windows, and, finally, forcing the soldiers to get out and march through the streets. The throng followed in close pursuit. What had now become a mob surrounded and jeered the regiment, then started throwing bricks and stones. Panicking, several soldiers fired randomly into the crowd, and mayhem ensued as the regiment scrambled to the railroad station. The police managed to hold the crowd back at the terminal, allowing the infantrymen to board their train and escape, leaving behind much of their equipment as well as their marching band.

Four soldiers and twelve civilians were killed, and scores were injured. Maryland officials demanded that no more Federal troops be sent through the state, while Baltimore's mayor and police chief authorized the destruction of key rail bridges to prevent Union troops from entering the city. Secessionist groups, meanwhile, tore down telegraph wires to Washington, temporarily cutting the capital off from the rest of the nation. On May 13, Federal troops, including members of the Massachusetts regiment attacked in the previous month's riot, occupied the city and martial law was declared, squelching most subsequent pro-Confederate activities.

The police chief, several commissioners, and a number of citizens were arrested for their alleged participation in the riot, and suspected secessionists, including Francis Scott Key's grandson and a number of state legislators, were held without charges. Federal forces continued to maintain an occupying presence in Baltimore for the remainder of the war.

April 20, - Resignation of Lee. Robert E. He travels to Richmond, Virginia, and is offered and accepts command of the military and naval forces of Virginia. Decisive action by Gen. It was to serve as the principal supply depot of General George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in May Occupation of Norfolk gave the Confederacy its only major shipyard and thousands of heavy guns, but they held it for only one year. Walter Gwynn , who commanded the Confederate defenses around Norfolk, erected batteries at Sewell's Point, both to protect Norfolk and to control Hampton Roads.

April 27, - Habeas Corpus Suspended. Abraham Lincoln authorizes the suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus in a limited area between Washington and New York in an order issued to Winfield Scott , Commander of the Army: "You are engaged in repressing an insurrection against the laws of the United States. If at any point on or in the vicinity of the military line which is now used between the city of Philadelphia via Perryville, Annapolis City and Annapolis Junction you find resistance which renders it necessary to suspend the writ of habeas corpus for the public safety, you personally or through the officer in command at the point where resistance occurs are authorized to suspend that writ.

Taney, then sitting on the Circuit Court bench, found that Merryman was being held unlawfully and issued a writ of habeas corpus. General George Cadwalader, in command of Fort McHenry, refused to obey the writ, however, on the basis that President Abraham Lincoln had suspended habeas corpus and citing the fact that he was acting in compliance with an Executive Order. Taney cited Cadwalader for contempt of court and then wrote an opinion about Article I, Section 9, of the Constitution, which allows suspension of habeas corpus "when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

Indeed the Constitution Article 1, Section 9 is silent on who can make the decision to suspend. Lincoln simply ignored Taney's order. President Lincoln justified his action in a message to Congress in July The limited suspension of habeas corpus was rescinded on February 14, Merryman was later released. The constitutional question of who has the right to suspend habeas corpus, Congress or the president, has never been officially resolved. May 3, - Lincoln Appeals for Volunteers. Abraham Lincoln appeals for 42, men to serve for three years or for the duration of the war. There is a general expectation of a short conflict.

May 6, - Arkansas Secedes from the Union. When the secession crisis swept the State in early the Arkansas Secession Convention voted to remain in the Union. The convention voted to take Arkansas out of the Union with only Isaac Murphy and four other delegates opposed. The convention chair called on the five opposition votes to change their votes so that Arkansas could speak with a unanimous voice. All four of the other nay voters changed their votes but Murphy refused.

May , - Tennessee Forms Alliance with Confederacy. On May 6, the Tennessee legislature calls for popular vote on secession.

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  4. The following day Tennessee forms an alliance with the Confederacy, effectively seceding from the Union. The Ordinance of Secession is approved by the voters on June 8, May , - The St. Louis Massacre began on May 10, when union military forces clashed with civilians on the streets of St.

    Louis, Missouri resulting in the deaths of at least 28 and injuries of roughly The events began when Union Captain Nathaniel Lyon , a Radical Republican known for his brazenness, used a newly mustered force of roughly 3, men, many of them German immigrants and members of the Wide Awakes organization, to arrest a Missouri State Militia encampment located outside of the city. It was widely rumored that the militia intended to take possession of the hotly contested St.

    Louis Arsenal, which both union and Confederate forces desired. After surrounding the militia encampment Lyon decided to march his prisoners through downtown St. Louis before providing them with a parole and ordering them to disperse. This march was widely viewed as humiliation for the state forces and immediately angered citizens who had gathered to watch the commotion. Tensions mounted quickly on the streets as civilians hurled fruit, rocks, and insults at Lyon's troops and some of the soldiers returned the favor.

    Nobody knows exactly what happened to provoke the massacre, but the standard report says that a drunkard stumbled into the path of the marching soldiers and got into an altercation with some of them. Weapons were drawn by both the soldiers and civilians and shots rang out. Some of the soldiers formed a line and fired into the nearby crowd. Violence continued for the next two days resulting in the death of at least 7 more civilians, who were shot by federal troops patrolling the streets. The St. Louis Massacre, as it came to be called, quickly sparked an outcry across the state of Missouri.

    Prior to that point most Missourians had been moderate unionists who were opposed to secession and war. Popular opinion transformed overnight, causing many former unionists including former Governor Sterling Price to advocate secession and producing a state that was bitterly divided between Union and Confederate sympathizers. May , - The First Wheeling Convention. Twenty-seven western Virginia counties were represented.

    Immediately a debate ensued over which delegates should be allowed to participate in the Convention: General John Jay Jackson of Wood County suggested seating all northwestern Virginians, but John Carlile insisted that only those who had been legitimately appointed by their constituencies be allowed to participate. Chester D. Hubbard of Ohio County ended the debate by proposing the creation of a committee on representation and permanent organization. Some, including John Jay Jackson, argued that preemptive action against the Ordinance of Secession before it was ratified was unwise: the Ordinance had not yet been presented to the citizens of Virginia for a vote, and would not be until May Others, including John Carlile, insisted on immediate action to "show our loyalty to Virginia and the Union", and on May 14, he called for a resolution creating a state of New Virginia.

    The motion was condemned as revolutionary, and most at the Convention instead supported resolutions offered by the Committee on State and Federal Resolutions, which recommended that western Virginians elect delegates to a Second Wheeling Convention to begin on June 11 if the people of Virginia approved the Ordinance of Secession. May 13, - Britain Declares Neutrality. Queen Victoria announces Great Britain's neutrality and grants the Confederacy "belligerent status. May 20, - North Carolina Secedes from the Union. In North Carolina two factions arose: unionists and secessionists.

    Unionist sentiment was very strong, as the support for John Bell indicated. Even many slave owners felt that Lincoln's election alone was not sufficient cause for secession. The secessionist movement included the governor of the state, John W. Unionists counted among their numbers prominent figures such as Congressman Zebulon Vance. In February the state's citizens defeated a referendum on whether to call a convention to discuss the issue. John W. Ellis received a telegram from Simon Cameron , Lincoln's secretary of war.

    The telegram, which was sent to all states still in the Union, asked for two regiments of troops for immediate military service. The south viewed this as an act of war, and most southerners, even those who opposed secession, felt they were now forced to choose sides. Jonathan Worth, state senator, writes on May "I have been the most persevering and determined public man in my State to preserve the Union, the last to abandon the hope that the good sense of the Nation would prevent a collision between the extremes, each of which I viewed with equal abhorrence.

    I am left no other alternative but to fight for or against my section. I can not hesitate. Lincoln has made us a unit to resist until we repel our invaders or die. He writes again on May "I think the South is committing suicide, but my lot is cast with the South and being unable to manage the ship, I intend to face the breakers manfully and go down with my companions.

    May 20, - Kentucky Declare Neutrality. Beriah Magoffin of Kentucky refused the call for troops and formally declared the state's neutrality. But the attempt proved futile: both Union and Confederate recruiters operated in the state, with Kentuckians serving on both sides. When Confederate troops moved into western Kentucky in September , and Brig. Ulysses S. Grant occupied Paducah, the legislature officially endorsed the Union.

    Pro-South Magoffin established a provisional government at Russellville, ratified the Confederate Constitution, and Kentucky was admitted to the Confederacy in December. May 21, - Richmond Named Confederate Capital. In April of , Richmond was burned by a retreating Confederate Army and was returned to the United States, becoming part of "Military District 1" during the Reconstruction period May 23, - Virginia Secedes from the Union.

    Virginia voters approve the Ordinance of Secession , to 37, The few Rebel pickets in Arlington, the town directly across the river from Washington, quickly retreated from the two Union columns that descended upon them. Confederate Gen. Lee 's spacious estate on Arlington Heights was quickly occupied as a Union military command post. The Virginia militiamen stationed six miles downstream at Alexandria, an important port and railroad center, were warned of this invasion in time for all but 35 of them to retreat through one end of town as Union troops rushed in the other.

    Two Union forces converged on Alexandria. Orlando B. Wilcox and his 1st Michigan Regiment marched down from Arlington and Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth and his exotically dressed 11th New York Zouave Regiment arrived at the Alexandria wharf aboard three river steamers. The Zouaves rushed ashore at daybreak and quickly secured the railroad station and telegraph office. As Ellsworth moved through the town, he spied a large Confederate flag flying from atop an inn called the Marshall House. Ellsworth rushed into the inn with four companions, climbed the stairs to the top, and cut down the flag.

    As they were going back down with the flag, innkeeper James W. Jackson met them at the third floor landing with a double-barreled shotgun in his hands. The Union invasion was a resounding success. The 24 year old Ellsworth had been a personal friend of President Abraham Lincoln, and his body lay in state at the White House.

    Ellsworth became a Union martyr, and babies, streets, and even towns were named after him. May 23, - Butler's Contraband Proclamation. Benjamin F. Butler declared as contraband three slaves who escaped to his lines at Fort Monroe, Virginia, and refused to return them to their master. By August 1, contrabands had joined Butler's camp. May 28, - Brig. June 3, - Death of Stephen Douglas. Stephen A. Douglas dies unexpectedly in Chicago of acute rheumatis at the age of Abraham Lincoln initiates a mourning period of 30 days.

    June 3, - The Battle of Philippi. George B. Thomas A. Morris, temporarily in command of Union forces in western Virginia, mounted a two-prong advance under Col. Ebenezer Dumont of the 7th Indiana Volunteers and Col. Kelley of the 1st West Virginia volunteers against a small Confederate occupation force at Philippi under Col. George Porterfield. Kelley marched on back roads from near Grafton on June 2 to reach the rear of the town, while Dumont moved south from Webster.

    Both columns arrived at Philippi, about 15 miles south of Grafton, before dawn on the 3rd. The surprise attack routed the Confederate troops, forcing them to retreat to Huttonsville. The Battle of Philippi became the first land battle of the Civil War involving organized troops and the Union's use of the railroad to deploy troops to the area, to rapidly engage enemy troops, was likely the first such use in the world history of warfare.

    June 8, - Tennessee secedes from the Union. Tennessee voters approve secession by a vote of , to 47, June 10, - Battle of Big Bethel. This was the first land battle in Virginia. The Federals, under immediate command of Brig. Ebenezer W. Pierce, pursued, attacked frontally along the road, and were repulsed.

    Crossing downstream, the 5th New York Zouaves attempted to turn the Confederate left flank, but were repulsed. Unit commander Col. Wynthrop was killed. The Union forces were disorganized and retired, returning to Hampton and Newport News. The Confederates suffered 1 killed, 7 wounded. June 10, - France Proclaims Neutrality.

    June , - The Second Wheeling Convention. The first measures adopted at the Convention ruled that 88 delegates representing 32 counties were entitled to seats in the convention, though other delegates would be accepted later. Arthur I. Boreman was selected to serve as president, and he declared, "We are determined to live under a State Government in the United States of America and under the Constitution of the United States. Carlile presented an ordinance for this purpose the next day, beginning the debate. Virtually all the delegates at the Convention recognized the differences between East and West Virginia as irreconcileable and supported some sort of separation; the disagreement was over how this separation should occur.

    Dennis Dorsey of Monongalia County called for permanent and decisive separation from Eastern Virginia. Carlile, however, though he had called for a similar plan during the First Convention, persuaded the delegates that Constitutional restrictions made it necessary for the formation of a loyal government of Virginia, whose legislature could then give permission for the creation of a new state. On June 19, delegates approved this plan unanimously. The next day, June 20, officials were selected to fill the offices of the Virginia state government.

    Francis H. Pierpont of Marion County was elected governor. On June 25, the Convention adjourned until August 6. West Virginia is formally admitted to the Union on June 20, July 4, - Special Session of Congress. The first session of the 37th Congress of the United States met in Washington on Thursday, July 4, , called to special session by the President after the fall of Fort Sumter. The Southern sympathizers were a small minority.

    The Republicans had complete control of both houses of Congress. Of the 48 senators, 32 were Republicans, and of the representatives, were Republicans. The House quickly elected a pro-war speaker, Galusha Grow of Pennsylvania. New Englanders now controlled the four powerful Senate committees that influenced war policy.

    Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, still scarred from the murderous caning given him by Senator Brooks, was chairman of Foreign Relations, and his colleague, Henry Wilson , presided over Military Affairs. John P. Fessenden of Maine led the Finance committee. These men and their associates, most prominently Senator Benjamin F.

    Wade of Ohio and Senator Zachariah Chandler of Michigan, were all radical Republicans, determined to punish the South and put an end to slavery once and for all.

    Reward Yourself

    In the House, clubfooted old Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania, a bitter enemy of the South and its "peculiar institution," ran the powerful Committee on Ways and Means, which exerted control on government appropriations. On the first day of the session, President Abraham Lincoln addressed the body in a joint session. The president listed the actions he had taken on his own authority: he had called up the militia; declared a blockade of the Confederacy; increased the regular military forces; suspended the writ habeas corpus ; and committed the government to great expenditures.

    All this had been done without Congressional approval, and Lincoln needed that approval to proceed further. He states the war is "a People's contest. July 5, - The Battle of Carthage. Franz Sigel led another force of about 1, into southwest Missouri in search of the governor and his loyal troops. Upon learning that Sigel had encamped at Carthage, on the night of July 4, Jackson took command of the troops with him and formulated a plan to attack the much smaller Union force. The next morning, Jackson closed up to Sigel, established a battle line on a ridge ten miles north of Carthage, and induced Sigel to attack him.

    Opening with artillery fire, Sigel closed to the attack. He withdrew. The Confederates pursued, but Sigel conducted a successful rearguard action. By evening, Sigel was inside Carthage and under cover of darkness; he retreated to Sarcoxie. The battle had little meaning, but the pro-Southern elements in Missouri, anxious for any good news, championed their first victory. This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the government, while I have the most solemn one to 'preserve, protect, and defend' it.

    Monday dawned, April Who that saw that day will ever forget it! For now They were for the protection of Washington and the property of the government This proclamation was like the first peal of a surcharged thunder-cloud, clearing the murky air. Hastily formed companies marched to camps of rendezvous, the sunlight flashing from gun-barrel and bayonet Merchants and clerks rushed out from stores, bareheaded, saluting them as they passed. Windows were flung up; and women leaned out into the rain, waving flags and handkerchiefs.

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    Horsde-cars and omnibuses halted for the passage of the soldiers, and cheer upon cheer leaped forth from thronged doors and windows I have never seen anything like this before. I had never dreamed that New England We the colored citizens of Queens County, N. Why not declare slavery abolished and favor our peaceful colonization in the Rebel states, or some portion of them? We would cheerfully return there and give our most willing aid to deliver our loyal colored brethren and other Unionists from the tyranny of rebels to our government.

    The war has stimulated the genius of our people and directed it to the service of our country. Sixty-six new inventions relating to engines, implements, and articles of warfare have been illustrated in our columns Other departments of industry have also been well represented. Our inventors have not devoted themselves exclusively to the invention of destructive implements; they have also cultivated the arts of peace.

    We have reproached the South for arbitrary conduct in coercing their people; at last we find we must imitate their example. We have denounced their tyranny for filling their armies with conscripts, and now we must follow their example. We have denounced their tyranny in suppressing freedom of speech and the press, and here, too, in time, we must follow their example.

    Military history

    The longer it is deferred the worse it becomes. I say with the press unfettered as now we are defeated to the end of time. I will not consent to put the entire purse of the country and the sword of the country into the hands of the executive, giving him despotic and dictatorial power to carry out an object which I avow before my countrymen is the destruction of their liberties and the overthrow of the Union of these states The charge has been made against us — all who are opposed to the policy of this administration and opposed to this war — that we are for 'peace on any terms.

    I am for peace, and would be, even if the Union could not be restored The exercise of these tremendous powers, the apology for which is the existence of this war, is utterly incompatible with the stability of the Constitution and of constitutional liberty. We congratulate the American people upon your reelection by a large majority. If resistance to the slave power was the reserved watchword of your first administration, the triumphant war cry of your reelection is 'Death to slavery. From the commencement of the titanic American strife, the workingmen of Europe felt instinctively that the star-spangled banner carried the destiny of their class The workingmen of Europe feel sure that as the American War of Independence initiated a new era of ascendancy for the middle class, so the American antislavery war will do for the working classes.

    They consider it an earnest of the epoch to come that it fell to the lot of Abraham Lincoln, the single-minded so of the working class, to lead his country through the matchless struggle for the rescue of an enchained race and the reconstruction of a social world. The enemy seemed to have gathered all their energies for their final assault. We had gotten our thin line into as good a shape as possible, when a strong force emerged from the scrub wood in the valley, as well as I could judge, in two lines in echelon by the right, and, opening a heavy fire, the first line came on as if they meant to sweep everything before them.