It contains contributions from countless numbers of travellers and researchers. Write an entry Read more. About Enzymes Enzymes are extracted from living organisms such as bacteria and moulds. They are biological catalysts capable of increasing efficiently the rate of a chemical reaction without using excessive energy, and remain unchanged once the reaction is complete.
Minute quantities can accomplish large amounts of product at relatively low temperatures, for example approximately 30 g of pure crystalline pepsin can digest nearly 2 metric tons of egg white in a few hours. There are numerous applications of enzymes in industry, for example in food, beverage, textiles and detergent processes. Use in Baking The wheat flour used for bread has naturally occurring enzymes that modify the starch, protein and fibre of the flour when water is added.
Yeast added to the mixture also has enzymes, which ferment the maltose over time, to make the dough rise. In bakeries, the quality of the wheat flour varies, as a consequence of natural variation, time of year or inconsistencies in milling. The interaction between different enzymes is complex and the wrong mixture of enzymes can be detrimental, for example, too much enzyme usually results in the failure of the bread to rise properly. The use of enzymes in bread making illustrates their value in quality control and efficiency of production.
Use in Alcohol In the alcohol industry, fermentation depends on the action of enzymes synthesised by the yeasts and bacteria used in the production process. Beer brewing essentially involves the yeast action on barley, maize, sorghum, hops or rice. The yeast cells convert simple sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
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However most sugar present is in the complex polysaccharide form such as starch and cannot readily be used. So these nutrients are "released" by malting in which enzymes are released, degrading starch and protein to simple reducing sugars and amino acids. The traditional malting process is an expensive inefficient way of manufacturing enzymes. So nowadays industrial enzymes such as amylases, glucanases and proteases are added to unmalted barley to produce the same products that malting would produce by more controlled means.
Use of enzymes in the beverage industry allow it to be more economic and have consistent quality. Use in Fruit Juices Enzymes are used in the processing of fruit juices to maximize the production of clear or cloudy juice. Nearly all fruits contain pectin. It is fortunate that enzymes continue to function bring out catalysis when they are separated from the cells i. They can be produced in large amounts by microorganisms for industrial applications.
Enzyme technology broadly involves production, isolation, purification and use of enzymes in soluble or immobilized form for the ultimate benefit of humankind. In addition, recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering involved in the production of more efficient and useful enzymes are also a part of enzyme technology.
The commercial production and use of enzymes is a major part of biotechnology industry. The specialties like microbiology; chemistry and process engineering, besides biochemistry have largely contributed for the growth of enzyme technology.
Enzymes in Industry | BioNinja
Enzymes have wide range of applications. These include their use in food production, food processing and preservation, washing powders, textile manufacture, leather industry, paper industry, medical applications, and improvement of environment and in scientific research. For details on the applications of individual enzymes, Tables Microbial enzymes have been utilized for many centuries without knowing them fully.
The first enzyme produced industrially was taka-diastase a fungal amylase in , in United States. It was used as a pharmaceutical agent to cure digestive disorders. In Europe, there existed a centuries old practice of softening the hides by using feces of dogs and pigeons before tanning. A German scientist Otto Rohm demonstrated in that extracts from animal organs pancreases from pig and cow could be used as the source of enzymes-proteases, for leather softening.
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The utilization of enzymes chiefly proteases for laundry purposes started in However, it was not continued due to allergic reactions of impurities in enzymes. Now special techniques are available for manufacture, and use of enzymes in washing powders without allergic reactions. Commercial enzymes can be produced from a wide range of biological sources.
The different organisms and their relative contribution for the production of commercial enzymes are given below:. A real breakthrough for large scale industrial production of enzymes from microorganisms occurred after s. In the early days, animal and plant sources largely contributed to enzymes. Even now, for certain enzymes they are the major sources. A selected list of plant Table Animal organs and tissues are very good sources for enzymes such as lipases, esterases and proteases.
The enzyme lysozyme is mostly obtained from hen eggs. Some plants are excellent sources for certain enzymes-papain papaya , bromelain pineapple. There are several drawbacks associated with the manufacture of enzymes from animal and plant sources. The quantities are limited and there is a wide variation in their distribution.
The most important limitations are the difficulties in isolating, purifying the enzymes, and the cost factor. For these reasons, microbial production of enzymes is preferred. There exists a possibility of producing commercial enzymes directly by mammalian cell cultures. But the main constraint will the cost factor which will be extremely high. However, certain therapeutic enzymes such as tissue plasminogen activator are produced by cell cultures.
Microorganisms are the most significant and convenient sources of commercial enzymes. They can be made to produce abundant quantities of enzymes under suitable growth conditions. Microorganisms can be cultivated by using inexpensive media and production can take place in a short period. In addition, it is easy to manipulate microorganisms in genetic engineering techniques to increase the production of desired enzymes. Recovery, isolation and purification processes are easy with microbial enzymes than that with animal or plant sources.
Various fungi, bacteria and yeasts are employed for this purpose. A selected list of enzymes, microbial sources and the applications are given in Table Among the microorganisms, A. There are well over 40 commercial enzymes that are conveniently produced by A. These include a-amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, pectinase, phytase, catalase and insulinase.
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In general, the techniques employed for microbial production of enzymes are comparable to the methods used for manufacture of other industrial products. The salient features are briefly described. The most important criteria for selecting the microorganism are that the organism should produce the maximum quantities of desired enzyme in a short time while the amounts of other metabolite produced are minimal. Once the organism is selected, strain improvement for optimising the enzyme production can be done by appropriate methods mutagens, UV rays. From the organism chosen, inoculum can be prepared in a liquid medium.
The culture medium chosen should contain all the nutrients to support adequate growth of microorganisms that will ultimately result in good quantities of enzyme production. The ingredients of the medium should be readily available at low cost and are nutritionally safe. Some of the commonly used substrates for the medium are starch hydrolysate, molasses, corn steep liquor, yeast extract, whey, and soy bean meal.
Microbial enzymes: industrial progress in 21st century
Here are a range of processes showing how enzymes are used Use in Baking-1 The wheat flour used to make bread contains naturally occurring enzymes that change the starch, protein and fibre in the flour when water is added Studying these coded proteins or genes brings about revolutionary advancements in the fields of medicine and bioengineering. The possibilities that genetic engineering make are endless. For example, genetic engineering can improve nutritious quality and enhance the flavor in foods.
We can also look forward to new techniques in disease prevention and treatments, improve the quality of life They cause reactions without being used up or changing after the reaction is completed. Enzymes are made of chains of amino acids. The amino acids are linked in specific ways to complete whichever job they were made to do. Each enzyme was built for a different job and will only work with a specific substance. The efficiency of enzymes is dependant on the temperatures that enzymes are exposed to Research Papers words 1. The following shows how enzymes are used in industry to extract or make useful substances.
Enzymes are biological catalysts that can help speed up a reaction by providing an active site. This active site is where the reaction takes place and it's shape is specifically opposite or complementary to the substrate that it has to react with Free Essays words 1. In detail; enzymes are globular proteins, which catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms, they are produced by living cells — each cell has hundreds of enzymes.
Cells can never run out of enzymes as they or used up in a reaction These reactions used to happen by using high heats or strong acids but no enzymes can be used in these industrial processes. Here are just a few ways they can be used. Biological washing powders use the enzyme protease.
This is enzyme is used to break down protein stains for example food and blood. The enzymes need alkali conditions to work there best and the detergents provide this The Uses of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine.
Novel biomaterial employs enzymes for industrial production
Open Document Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper. Need Writing Help? The Uses of Enzymes In Industry, Medicine and Analytical and Diagnostic Processes - The Uses of Enzymes In Industry, Medicine and Analytical and Diagnostic Processes Enzymes are very precise protein molecules with a high specificity which are used to catalyse chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to take place.
The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine Essay - The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine Enzymes have a wide range of applications and they are used in industry and in medicine to perform numerous different tasks to get specific results. Real Life Uses for Metabolic and Digestive Enzymes Essay - Enzymes are protein based molecules that help to speed up reactions in other molecules.
Enzymes in Medicine and Food Industry Essay - Enzymes in Medicine and Food Industry Enzymes are used very frequently in all of the above places because they provide a useful means of getting the required material out of a substance without wasting either the substance or the enzyme, as they are renewable. Essay on Industrial Uses of Enzymes - Industrial Uses of Enzymes Most of the reactions catalysed by enzymes have commercial or industrial uses.
Search Term:. However, there are many disadvantages to leaving pectinase in the juice.